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Information processing model of communication Overview of marketing communication options Developing IMC programme
Simple test for marketing communication effectiveness Current Brand knowledge
Desired Brand knowledge
1. What is our current brand knowledge? Have you created a detailed mental map 2. What is our detailed brand knowledge? Have you defined optimal P..O.P. & P.O.D. and brand values? 3. How does the communication option help the brand get from current to desired knowledge with customers?
Information processing model of communication
William Mcguire¶s 6 step communication process: 1. Exposure 2. Attention 3. Comprehension 4. Yielding 5. Intentions 6. Behaviour If there is a breakdown or failure in any one step along the way, then successful communication will not result. Therefore, for successful IMC campaign, marketers must attempt to increase the likelyhood that each step occurs.
it is important to distinguish the message strategy or positioning of an ad from its creative strategy 2 main concerns in devising an advertising strategy: Defining the proper positioning to maximise brand equity Identifying the best creative strategy to communicate or convey the desired positioning .Overview of marketing communications options In designing & evaluating an ad campaign.
desirable .Define positioning & establish brand equity Create competitive frame of reference: .necessary .nature of competition .target markets Point of parity attributes or benefits: .deliverable .competitive Point of difference attributes or benefits: .
Identify creative strategy to communicate positioning concept Rossiter & Percy¶s Grid *Brand recognition at point of purchase Established target audience Relief purchase #Brand Recall prior to purchase Relief High risk Low risk Reward purchase Reward purchase purchase New target audience Brand attitude Informational Transformational Motivation Negative Positive *Brand leads to category requirements #Category requirement leads to the brand .
brand personality or values Motivational (³borrowed interest´ techniques): Humour Sex appeal Fear Warmth Music Special effects .typical or aspirational usage situation .Identify creative strategy to communicate positioning concepts: Informational (benefit elaboration): .demonstration .typical or aspirational usage of products .product comparison .testimonial (celebrity or unknown consumer) Transformational (imagery portrayal): .problem solving .
cinema) Point-of-Purchase Advertising Trade Promotions Consumer Promotions Sponsorship of Event Marketing Publicity or Public Relations . radio. magazines) Direct Response Advertising Interactive (on-line) Advertising & Web Sites Outdoor Advertising (billboards. newspapers.Alternative Communication Options (Consumer) Media Advertising (TV. posters.
Promise the listeners a benefit early in the commercial 4.Radio ads According to David Aaker four factors are critical: 1. Identify your ad earlier in the commercial 2. Identify it often 3. Repeat it often .
Is the message clear at a glance? 2. Does the illustration support the headline? 4.Print ads Following questions must be answered affirmatively concerning the execution elements: 1. Does the first line of the copy support or explain the headline or illustration? 5. Is the benefit in the headline? 3. Is the product easily identifiable? 7. Is the ad easy to read & follow? 6. Is the brand or sponsor clearly identified? .
not single ads Be creative and develop creative themes ± Avoid slavishly sticking to executional formulas Brand communications should sing like a choir ± Multiple voices ± Multiple notes Find fresh consumer insights & compelling brand truths Productively conduct ad research .Ad Campaign Considerations Campaigns make brands -.
overpowering creative in ads .Common Mistakes in Developing Advertising Failure to distinguish ad positioning (what you say) from ad creative (how you say it) Mistaken assumptions about consumer knowledge Improperly positioned Failure to break through the clutter Distracting.
) Under-branded ads Failure to use supporting media Changing campaigns too frequently Substituting ad frequency for ad quality .Common Mistakes in Developing Advertising (cont.
Developing an up-to-date & informative list of current & future potential cutomers 2. Tracking the effectiveness of the marketing programme . Putting forth the right offer in the right manner 3.Direct Marketing 3 critical ingredients: 1.
On-line Banner ads ³Sky-scrapper´ ads Personalized messages .
Type: What type of promotion should be used? Immediate vs. Terms: What terms of sale should be attached to the promotion? . Timing: When should promotion be offered & for how long? 5. Product scope: To what pack sizes or models should promotion apply? Multiple or selective? 3. Discount rate: What implicit or explicit discounts should be attached to the promotion? 6. added value? 2.Sales promotion Issues in deciding sales promotion: 1. delayed value? Price vs. Market scope: In which geographic market should the promotion be offered? 4.
To entertain key elements or reward key employees 8. To create experience & evoke feelings 6. To increase awareness of the company or product name 3. To express commitment to the community or on social issues 7. To enhance corporate image dimensions 5. To permit merchandise or promotional opportunities .Event Marketing & Sponsorship Reasons for sponsoring events: 1. To identify with a particular target market or lifestyle 2. To create or reinforce consumer perceptions of the key brand associations 4.
EVEN COMPANIES THAT PRIMARILY USE ADVERTISING & PROMOTIONS CAN BENEFIT FROM WELL-CONCEIVED & WELL-EXECUTED PUBLICITY . IT ALSO NEEDS TO BE A ROUTINE PART OF ANY MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS PROGRAMME.Public Relations & Publicity MARKETERS NOW RECOGNISE THAT ALTHOUGH PUBLIC RELATIONS IS INVALUABLE DURING A MARKETING CRISIS.
who are eager to spread the word of the product among their peers News travels in this fashion until enough tongues are wagging to constitute a ³buzz´ about the brand Increasingly companies are attempting to create consumer word-of-mouth through various techniques often caled buzz marketing .Buzz marketing Occasionally. a product enters the market with a little fanfare yet is still able to attract a strong consumer base: Something about the product attracts a core group of consumers.
establishing brand awareness & a positive brand image in consumer¶ minds produces the knowledge structures that can affect consumer response & generate customer customer-based brand equity .Developing Integrated Marketing Communications Programme Strategies behind marketing communications programmes have changed dramatically over the years Marketers should ³mix & match´ communications options to build brand equity: .choose a variety of different communication options that share common meaning & content but also offer different. complementary options .
Cost .Matching communication options In assessing collective impact of an IMC programme. Versatility 6. Contribution 3. the overriding goal is to create the most effective & efficient communication programme possible 6 criteria identified to achieve this goal: 1. Complementarity 5. Coverage 2. Commonality 4.
4.) 1.Matching communication options (contd. 5. Coverage: inherent communication ability of a marketing option. 3. . 6. as suggested by Contribution: create the desired response & communication effect from consumers in the absence of exposure in any other communication option Commonality: create consistent & coherent brand image Complementary: extent to which different associations & linkages are emphasized across communication options Versatility: effect for different group of consumers Cost 2.
Shaded portions represent areas of overlap in communication options.Audience Communication Option Overlap Communication Option A Communication Option B Communication Option C Note: Circles represent the market segments reached by various communication options. .
Evaluating IMC Programs Coverage .what is the per capita expense . as well as how much overlap exists among options Cost .what proportion of the target audience is reached by each communication option employed.
& uniqueness of brand associations Commonality .) Contribution .the collective effect on brand equity in terms of ± enhancing depth & breadth of awareness ± improving strength.the extent to which information conveyed by different communication options share meaning .Evaluating IMC Programs (cont. favorability.
Evaluating IMC Programs (cont.the extent to which information contained in a communication option works with different types of consumers Different communications history Different market segments .) Complementarity .the extent to which different associations and linkages are emphasized across communication options Versatility .
Keller Be s Be analytical: Use frameworks of consumer behavior and managerial decision-making to develop well-reasoned communication programs Be curious: Fully understand consumers by using all forms of research and always be thinking of how you can create added value for consumers Be single-minded: Focus message on well-defined target markets (less can be more) Be integrative: reinforce your message through consistency and cuing across all communications .
strong. and employees through tracking studies Be realistic: Understand the complexities involved in marketing communications Be patient: Take a long-term view of communication effectiveness to build and manage brand equity . and unique brand associations Be observant: Monitor competition. use alternative promotions and media to create favorable. customers.Keller Be s Be creative: State your message in a unique fashion. channel members.
It involves: Evaluating communications options Establishing priorities & tradeoffs Executing the final design & implementation .Using IMC choice criteria Can provide some guidance for designing & implementing IMC programme.
do not share an obvious relationship .Using the IMC choice criteria Commonality & complementarity will often be inversely related Versatility & complementarity will often be inversely related Commonality & versatility on the other hand.
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