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? ? 
` | is the  
 of mobile
phone standards and technology,
superseding 2G and preceding 4G. It is
based on the International
Telecommunication Union (ITU) family of
standards under the International Mobile
Telecommunications program IMT-
` |G technologies enable network operators
to offer users a wider range of more
advanced services while achieving greater
network capacity through improved
spectral efficiency. Services include wide-
area wireless voice telephony, video calls,
and broadband wireless data, all in a
mobile environment. Additional features
also include HSPA data transmission
capabilities able to deliver speeds up to
14.4Mbit/s on the downlink and 5.8Mbit/s
on the uplink.
` Unlike IEEE 802.11 (common names
Wife or WLAN) networks, |G
networks are Ñ 

  Ñ  which evolved to
incorporate high-
high-speed internet
access and video telephony. IEEE
802.11 networks are short range,
high--bandwidth networks primarily
developed for data
` Π The Mobile Switching Center (MSC) switch, including
the Visitor Location Register (VLR), is a switch that serves
the Mobile Equipment (ME) in its current location for Circuit
Switched (CS) services.
`  The Gateway MSC (GMSC) switch serves the UMTS
network at the point where it is connected to the external
CS .
`  The MSC and GMSC handle control functionality,
but user data goes through the Media Gateway (MGW),
which performs the actual switching for user data and
network inter-
inter-working processing.
`   The Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) covers
functions similar to the MSC for packet data, including VLR
type functionality
` YY  The Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN)
connects the Packet-
Packet-Switched (PS) core network
to other networks such as the Internet.
` |G Base station (Node B) handles

radio channels, including the
multiplexing/demultiplexing of user voice and
data information.
`  The Radio Network Controller (RNC) is
responsible for controlling and managing the
multiple base stations (Node Bs) including the
utilization of radio network services.
` GG The Uu is the interface between the UMTS
Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) and the ME,
including phones, laptops and PDAs.

` G The lub is the interface between the NodeBs and

the RNCs. Typically, multiple T1/E1 links from each
Node B are aggregated to one or several ATM STM-
(OC--|) links or one STM-
(OC STM-4 link.

` G The lur is the interface between the RNCs for soft
handover. Usually implemented on one or several ATM
STM--1 (OC-
STM (OC-|) links or one STM-
STM-4 (OC-
(OC-12) link.
` G The lucs is the core network interface between
the RNCs and circuit-
circuit-switched voice network. It is
usually implemented on an STM-
STM-4 (OC-
(OC-12) link or an
Ethernet link.

` G  The lups is the core network interface between

the RNCs and packet-
packet-switched data network. It is
usually implemented on an STM-
STM-4 (OC-
(OC-12) link or an
Ethernet link.
÷ |
` 2APAN The first pre-
pre-commercial |G
network was launched by NTT Do Como in
2apan branded FOMA, in May 2001 on a
pre--release of W-
pre W-CDMA-
CDMA-GA| technology.
` The first commercial launch of |G was
also by NTT Do Como in 2apan on October
1, 2001
` EUROPE First commercial network in
Europe was opened for business by
Teleport in December 2001 with no
commercial handsets and thus no paying
` USA The second |G network
operator in the USA was Venison in
October 200| also on CDMA2000 1x
EV--DO, and this network has grown
strongly since then.
` AUSTRALIA Australia's largest and
fastest |G UMTS/HSDPA network
was launched by Telstra branded as
" Y 
 Y "" on the 850 MHz band in
October 2006, intended as a
replacement of their cdmaOne
network Australia wide
` In December 2007, 190 |G networks
were operating in 40 countries and
154 HSDPA networks were operating
in 71 countries, according to the
Global mobile Suppliers Association.
In Asia, Europe, Canada and the
USA, telecommunication companies
use W-
W-CDMA technology with the
support of around 100 terminal
designs to operate |G mobile
networks .
` By 2une 2007 the 200 millionth |G
subscriber had been connected. Out of |
billion mobile phone subscriptions
worldwide this is only 6.7%. In the
countries where |G was launched first -
2apan and South Korea - over half of all
subscribers use |G. In Europe the leading
country is Italy with a third of its
subscribers migrated to |G. Other leading
countries by |G migration include UK,
Austria, Australia and Singapore at the
20% migration level.
` Still several major countries such as
Turkey, China, Indonesia, etc have
not awarded |G licenses and
customers await |G services. China
has been delaying its decisions on |G
for many years, partly hoping to
have the Chinese |G standard, TD TD--
SCDMA, to mature for commercial
` 2G networks were built mainly for voice
data and slow transmission. Due to rapid
changes in user expectation, they do not
meet today's wireless needs.
` Cellular mobile telecommunications
networks are being upgraded to use |G
technologies from 1999 to 2010. 2apan
was the first country to introduce |G
nationally, and in 2apan the transition to
|G was largely completed in 2006. Korea
then adopted |G Networks soon after and
the transition was made as early as 2004.
` When converting a GSM network to a UMTS
network, the first new technology is General
Packet Radio Service (GPRS). It is the trigger to
|G services. The network connection is always
on, so the subscriber is online all the time. From
the operator's point of view, it is important that
GPRS investments are re-re-used when going to
UMTS. Also capitalizing on GPRS business
experience is very important.
` From GPRS, operators could change the network
directly to UMTS, or invest in an EDGE system.
One advantage of EDGE over UMTS is that it
requires no new licenses. The frequencies are
also re-
re-used and no new antennas are needed.
` The rising cost of the infrastructure needed to provide sufficient
capacity for advanced mobile Internet services is a key challenge
facing cellular operators and other mobile telecommunications
service providers. Wireless equipment manufacturers must be able
to add more flexibility and processing power to line cards without
inflating system cost or exceeding the power budget.
` Specific design challenges for RNC include:
` Increased application complexity to support evolving |gpp
` Market demands for more data services, requiring modular and
reusable hardware and software building blocks
` Standardization requirements, such as Advanced TCAŒ, driven by
reductions in CAPEX/OPEX and time-
` Move from feature-
feature-based to cost-
cost-driven systems cost per channel
and MIPS per watt as the main selection criteria
` Technology standards for |G will change, and new
access technologies will be introduced. A scalable
processing platform that can evolve with technology is
needed so equipment vendors can maintain a distinct
competitive advantage.
` Freescale's host processors containing PowerPC® cores
and PowerQUICCΠIII family of integrated
communications processors must handle more user
plane processing functions. These processors are good
choices because they are scaleable, cost-
cost-effective and
provide exceptional MIPS per watt ration. In addition,
providing a high level of support for applications
protocols, development systems and cross-
engagements is essential.
` |G networks offer a greater degree of security
than 2G predecessors. By allowing the UE to
authenticate the network it is attaching to, the
user can be sure the network is the intended one
and not an impersonator. |G networks use the
KASUMI block crypto instead of the older A5/1
stream cipher.
` In addition to the |G network infrastructure
security, end to end security is offered when
application frameworks such as IMS are
accessed, although this is not strictly a |G
| ›
` Technically, the main difference between
|G and 2G networks is how quickly data
can be sent and received. |G networks
can send data up to 40 times the rates of
earlier digital networks, which means that
in addition to audio, graphics and text, |G
customers can also send and receive video
content, in |G coverage areas. They
provide service at 5-
5-10 Mb per second.
` Π , senior research
analyst, Gartner Asia Pacific told ?  ,
³the growth momentum of subscriber base
continues unabated and we estimate it to touch
700 million by 2012 with every fifth subscriber
being on |G by then.´
? ,
Secretary General, Cellular Operators Association
of India (COAI), ³2G players can go for natural
evolution to |G and consumers would expect a
natural evolution to |G, particularly in context of
the low broadband penetration. Other countries
have had adequate wire penetration when |G
was launched, but in India mobile telephony is
the real frontrunner with wire penetration

` The technology has already moved

on to ³beyond |G´ or ³4G´. A 4G
system will be able to provide a
comprehensive IP solution where
voice, data and streamed multimedia
can be given to users on an
³Anytime, Anywhere´ basis, and at
higher data rates than previous