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DAVID McCLLELAND

THEORY OF NEEDS

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Team Members
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Ankit Singh Akhil TN Amitava Mukherjee Gargi Jalan 10FN-017 10HR-003 10HR-004 10DM-188

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company. Moved to Boston University in 1987.com .Personal Details ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ May 1917 ± March 1998 Born in Mt Vernon in New York state BA from Wesleyan University 1938 MA from University of Missouri 1939 PhD from Yale University 1941 Taught at Connecticut College and Wesleyan University before joining the faculty at Harvard University in 1956 Worked there for 30 years as chairman of Department of social relations. www. he was awarded the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions. Here.

company.Research Interests & Publications ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Studied particularly Motivation and Achievement needs.com . Internationally acclaimed for his early work in measuring human needs and motivation. Research covers business and OB related issues. Extends to personality and consciousness. ‡ Some published works are: ± ± ± ± ± The Achievement Motive (1953) The Achieving Society (1961) The Roots of Consciousness (1964) Power: The Inner Experience (1975) Human Motivation (1987) www.

‡ The need for Power.com . ‡ The need for Affiliation.Three Need Theory ‡ The need for Achievement. www.company.

The Need for Achievement BEHAVIOR ‡ GAMBLERS: Choose big risk because outcome is beyond their power and personal responsibility can be shunned in case of loss.com . www.company. ‡ ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATED PEOPLE: Choose moderate degree of risk where their effort influences the outcome. ‡ CONSERVATIVES: Choose tiny risks where gain is small but secure to avoid blame for failure.

Easily attained success not a genuine achievement. ‡ More concerned with personal achievement rather than rewards of success.com .Outcome depends on chance rather than self effort. ‡ Achievers avoid: low risk situations. ‡ Amount of money is a measurement of performance and a comparative scale. ‡ They want social. attitudinal and job relevant feedback www.Achievers (nAch) ‡ Some people have an intense need to achieve. high risk situations.company.

‡ Strong need for affiliation interferes with a manager¶s objectivity.company.The need for Affiliation ‡ Need that concerns an individual¶s need to maintain warm. ‡ Tend to conform to the norms of their work group. close and intimate relationship with other people ‡ Perform best in a co-operative environment.com . www. ‡ Perform well in customer service and client interaction situations.

company.com .Behavior (nAff) ‡ Low nAFF ± Loner ± Lack motivation or energy to maintain high social www.

Behavior (nAff) ‡ Strong nAFF ± Reluctant to let work interfere with harmonious relationships. smoothing out disagreements ± Work and make decisions collectively in a group ± Avoidance of unpopular decisions ± Showing favoritism to friends www.company. ± Tend to be the peacemakers.com .

Behavior (nAff) ‡ Moderate nAFF ± Effective management ± Balance work and relationships www.company.com .

The Need For Power (nPow) ‡ The desire to have impact ‡ To be influential ‡ To control others www.com .company.

company.Types (nPow) A person's need for power (nPow) can be one of two types ‡ People with a high need for personal power want to direct and influence others. www. ‡ Persons who need institutional power want to organize the efforts of others to further the goals of the organization.com .

Behavior (nPow) ‡ Enjoy being in charge ‡ Strive for influence over others ‡ Prefer to be placed into competitive and status-oriented situations ‡ Tend to be more concerned with prestige and gaining influence over others than with effective performance www.com .company.

2.company.Behavior (nPow) Four stages within the power orientation 1.com . Drawing inner strength from others Strengthening oneself Self-assertiveness Acting as an instrument of higher authority www. 3. 4.

Feedback (nPow) ‡ Managers with a high need for institutional power tend to be more effective than those with a high need for personal power. ‡ The best managers are high in their needs for power and low in their needs for affiliation.company.com . ‡ Powerful positions would be the stimulus to a high power motive. www.

Thematic Apperception Test ‡ A tool to measure the individual needs of different people. and is asked to develop a story for each picture ‡ Assumes is that the subject will project his own needs into the story ‡ Finds out which type of job would be preferable according to a person¶s dominant need www.com . a test of imagination ‡ Presents the subject with a series of pictures.company.

High need for power ± Management should provide power seekers the opportunity to manage others.Implications of T. for Management High need for achievement ± Given challenging projects with reachable goals.A.T. it is an effective form of feedback. www. High need for affiliation ± Employees with a high affiliation need perform best in a cooperative environment. While money is not an important motivator. Provided frequent feedback.company.com .

com .Combinations for Managerial Success Large Organizations Entrepreneurial Small Organizations nPOW ( HIGH ) nACH ( MODERATE ) nAFF ( MODERATE ) nPOW ( MODERATE ) nACH ( HIGH ) nAFF ( LOW ) Bullet 1 Bullet 2 www.company.

com .Implications of Theory of Needs ‡ Achievement follows Affiliation ‡ High Power and Achievement give better performance and career advancement ‡ Entrepreneurial Managers need high achievement followed by moderately high power and a low affiliation ‡ Managers in large organisation have a higher need for power www.company.

com .company.Distribution of Need Behaviors Need for Achievement AVOIDANCE Fears Failure Avoids responsibility and action APPROACH  Must win at any cost  Must be on top and receive all credit www.

company.com .Distribution of Need Behaviors Need for Affiliation AVOIDANCE Remains Aloof Maintain Social Distance APPROACH  Demands blind loyalty and harmony  Does not tolerate disagreement www.

company.Distribution of Need Behaviors Need for Power AVOIDANCE Dependent and subordinate Minimizes position and resources APPROACH  Control everyone and everything  Exaggerates own position and resources www.com .

³David McClleland and Competencies´.articleId-8908. ³Human Relations Contributors´.com/davidmcclelland.com/psych. accessed on 5th September 2010.com/journal/item/5 .htm . accessed on 5th September 2010. at http://www.com/study_guide/Motivation-TheoriesIndividual-Needs.html . ³Motivation Theories´.html .html . accessed on 5th September 2010. ³David McClelland Theory of Needs What is the Theory of Needs?´.com/~donclark/hrd/case/McClelland.salesdialogue.edu/dswenson/web/LEAD/McClelland. accessed on 5th September 2010. at http://duniapsikologi.wikipedia.htm . accessed on 5th September 2010.topicArticleId-8944. ³David McClelland's 3-Need Theory Achievement. accessed on 5th September 2010.org/wiki/David_McClelland . Affiliation.nwlink.company. at http://www. ³David McCllelend Psychologist´. accessed on 5th September 2010. www. ³Dr.multiply.mcclellandmedia.com/human_relations/hrels_06i_argyris.css. ³David McClleland Motivational Needs Theory´ .com/background_mcclelland. David McClleland´.References ³David McClleland´ . at http://www. at http://en. Power´.accelteam. at http://faculty. accessed on 5th September 2010. at http://www. accessed on 5th September 2010.businessballs.html .com .cliffsnotes. at http://www. at http://www.html .

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