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Proakis and D. Ludeman 2.G.REFERENCES 1.The Analysis and Processing of Sinals By: Paul Lynn 4. Manolakis . D.Digital Signal Processing By: William Stanley By Paul Lynn 3.Fundamentals of Digital Signal Processing By: Lonnie C.Digital Signal Processing By: Schaffer and Gold By: J.

Theory and Application of DSP By: Rabiner and Gold 6.5. By: Burger and Burge .Digital Image Processing By: Gongalez and Woods 7.Digital Image Processing using Java.

Histograms ‡ 4-Point Operations .Digital Images ‡ 3.Contents ‡ 1.Fundamentals of Discrete-Time Systems ‡ 2.

Introduction ‡ Digital Signal Processing = 3 words ‡ Definition of each word: ‡ The word ³signal´ What is a signal? * A signal is a pattern of variation that carry information. x and y. . * Signals are represented mathematically as a function of one or more independent variable * A picture is brightness as a function of two spatial variables.

g.Examples of signals ‡ Electrical signals like voltages. sound: air pressure variation at a point as a function of time p(t) ‡ Video signals like intensity variation in an image ‡ Biological signal like sequence of bases in gene ‡ Noise which will be treated as unwanted signal . current and ‡ EM field in circuit ‡ Acoustic signals like audio or speech signals (analog or digital) e.

.‡ Signals can be one-dimensional. twodimensional or three-dimensional ‡ This course is concerned with onedimensional signals as a function of time.

The word ³digital´ ‡ Signals are classified as continuous-time & discrete-time ‡ If the signal is defined on a continuous time range Such as: ‡ Speech ‡ Temperature ‡ Seismic wave .


Discrete-time Signals A discrete-time signal x[n] is defined only at discrete instances .


Sampling .

Quantization .

The word ³Processing´ Processing purposes: ‡ Characteristic parameter ‡ Signal conversion ‡ Removing noise or unwanted signals ‡ System Characterization Examples« Noise reduction Data compression Representation for recognition/classification« .

) Noise Reduction (classical smoothing) Signal Analysis (transitions. sharpen images.The purposes of the DSP operations are varied. etc. Wavelet) ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ . patterns. frequency distribution. Some of the more important ones are ‡ ‡ ‡ Correct Distortion (de-blurr) Signal Decomposition (separate messages or separate message and noise) Feature Enhancement (boost signal components.) Signal Compression Signal Encryption Signal Transformation (Fourier. peaks. Walsh. etc.

DSP Applications ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Radar Acoustics Speech Nuclear Biomedical Engineering Seismic Data Analysis Oil Exploitation Medical Imaging .

DSP consists of two parts: 1.Digital Filter ±Digital Processor.Processor Design (Noise removal.Signal Analysis (characteristics. information contents. noise or unwanted signals) 2. «) Digital system.Course Description Generally. signal separation. .