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# EXPERIMENT 8- ZENER DIODE

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1) Measure and plot the forward and reverse characteristics of a typical Zener diode using digital multimeter. 2) Demonstrate the forward and reverse characteristics of a typical Zener diode using oscilloscope.

OBJECTIVES

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EQUIPMENTS
1) Power Source 0-10Vac 2) Power Source 0-40Vdc 3) Digital Multimeter 4) Oscilloscope 5) R1-470 Ω 6) R2-10 Ω 7) VR1-Zener Diode 8) Project board with connecting wires
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PROCEDURES FOR OBJECTIVE 1 FIGURE 2 4 .

 5 .2 Vdc. Series resistor R1 limits the maximum diode current to approximately 80mAdc.VF. IF were measure and record in table 1. The digital multimeter was set to a low dc volt range.  b)The dc source voltage Es was slowly increase until the forward diode voltage.  d)For each of the forward voltages listed in the Table was repeated. a)The circuit shown in Figure 2. indicated by the digital multimeter.  c)The forward diode current. is 0.1.  e)The voltage was return to zero.

40 0.35 1 . 10 0.75 Forward current.70 0.50 0.00 0. VF (Vdc) ±0.00 0.65 0.07 0.RESULT ( TABLE 1 ) Forward volts.01 0.60 0.00 0. IF (mAdc) ±0.01 0.55 0.20 0. 71 6 .00 0.

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 2.   b)A smooth curve through all of plotted points was draw. 8 .a)The forward current measurements from table 1 was plot on the graph.

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 e)The voltage was return to zero.Es was slowly increase until the reverse voltage.  C)The reverse diode current.VR indicated by the digital multimeter. 3.  10 . a)The circuit was change to that shown in Figure 4. IR were measure and record in Table 2.  d)The measurement were repeated for each of the reverse voltage listed in the table.  b)The dc source voltage. is 2Vdc. by reversing the Zener diode connection.

0 11.RESULT ( TABLE 2 ) Reverse voltage.0 12 .1 0 11 .00 0.0 6.0 9.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.0 7.0 10.05 0.00 0.VR (Vdc) ±0.00 0.0 3.00 0.00 0. 0 Reverse diode current.0 8.01 2.0 5.00 0.0 4. IR (mAdc) ±0.

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The lower left hand (reverse volts) portion of the graph was use  b)A smooth curve was draw through all plotted point. a)The reverse current measurements from Table 2 were plot on the graph. 4. 13 .

PROCEDURES FOR OBJECTIVE 2 14 .

The ac voltage was set to a value above the Zener voltage. The vertical scale divisions was converted directly to current since the value of R2 is 10 Ω. alternately biased the diode in forward and reverse direction. The Zener diode is tested by applying a controlled ac voltage across the anode and cathode through current limiting resistor R1 and R2. 15 . a)The test circuit in Figure 5 was examine. this would cause both forward and reverse diode current to low through R1 and R2. 5. Vertical deflection is proportional to current. The voltage drop across R2 is applied to the vertical input of the oscilloscope and cause the spot to move up and down.

d)The digital multimeter was set to 15Vac range and was connect across the output of the ac power source. The intensity was reduce to prevent damage to the CRT.  16 . The vertical deflection for 0.05V/cm was calibrate and the horizontal SWEEP TIME/CM was set to EXT. c)The output of the variable ac power source was connect between the EXT SYN/HOR input and GDN of the oscilloscope.b)The oscilloscope was calibrate. The spot was center by adjusting the horizontal and vertical positioning controls.

 17 . The oscilloscope VARIABLE/HOR GAIN control was adjust until the horizontal trace covers 10cm.07Vrms (20 volts peak-to-peak) as indicated on the digital multimeter. The oscilloscope were leave horizontal and vertical gain controls set at their calibrated position.e)The output of the ac power source was adjust for 7. The horizontal input was calibrated for 2 volts per cm. The oscilloscope and digital multimeter was disconnect. f)The voltage was return to zero.

while observing the oscilloscope screen.g)The circuit was connect as shown in Figure 5. The oscilloscope was connect to the ground to test circuit ground. i)The current-voltage values against the values as plotted on the graph paper was compare. The anode of VR1 was connect to the EXT SYNC/HOR input and the cathode to the vertical input of the oscilloscope. h)The output voltage of the power supply was gradually increase to 20 volts peak-to-peak.  18 . j)The voltage was return to zero. as indicated by the digital multimeter.

DISCUSSION 19 .

60Vdc.DISCUSSION FOR OBJECTIVE 1  1)The voltage of Zener diode forward biased.  20 . 2)Comparison of forward characteristics between the Zener diode and the convensional Silicon diode.VF is 0.

Zener diode Silicon diode 21 .

The Zener diode is specially designed to have a greatly reduced breakdown voltage and always keep voltage always higher than breakdown. This doping allows the Zener diode to hold a specific voltage despite fluctuations in electrical current when the Zener diode is reverse-biased. But .VZequal to 12.3) The Zener( avalanche) action occur when Voltage drop. 4) A conventional silicon operated in the reverse breakdown region of its operating curve is normally destroy. Current did not flow through the diode until it reaches the knee voltage.  22 . A Zener diode is doped more heavily than other diodes.0V.

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This result differ because the resist 10 Ω was adding in Experiment B.36 V.DISCUSSION FOR OBJECTIVE 2 1)The voltage breakdown from A is 12V and voltage breakdown from B is 8. Therefore the result of Experiment A and B are different.  24 . Addition of this resistor cause the current change.

Demonstrate the forward and reverse characteristics of a typical Zener using an oscilloscope.  25 .

QUIZ 26 .

 A convensional silicon diode will not allow the significant if it reverse biased below its reverse breakdown voltage.A Zener diode differs from a conventional silicon diode?  Zener diode is a special kind of diode which permits current to flow in the forward direction as normal and also allow it to flow in the reverse direction when the voltage is above certain value which is breakdown voltage known as Zener voltage. 27 .

2) A Zener diode can be use as what? • Since the voltage dropped across a Zener diode is a known and fixed value. Zener diode used to regulate the voltage in electric circuit. 28 . Zener diode are widely used as voltage reference and regulate the voltage across a small circuit.

29 .3) What is Zener diode voltage? • The Zener diodes maintain a fixed voltage in an electrical circuit. a Zener diode conducts when the voltage reaches the diodes reverse breakdown voltage. the diode breaks down without damaging the circuit. They are designed so that when a certain voltage is reached. 4) A Zener diode is normally connected?   • When the Zener diode are connected in parellel with variable voltage source so that it is reverse biased.

0  0.is the resistance of the Zener diode in the breakdown region? • V=IR • R=V/I  = 12. 1 x 10-3 = 120.0 kΩ 30 .

What is the maximum Zener current the diode can safely hand Maximum Current = Power/ Voltage.69 A  31 . I=V/R  1 = 1 + 1  R 470 Ω 10 Ω  1 = 243  R 235  R = 9.79 Ω  =0.8V/9.79 Ω I = V/R  = 6. Power = I2R .

CONCLUSION 32 .

the Zener diode act same as conventional silicon diode. But in reverse biased. conventional silicon is normally destroy but Zener diode have a greatly reduced breakdown voltage and always keep voltage always higher than breakdown. 33 . At this point.• The voltage current characteristics of Zener diode are similar to conventional silicon diode when the Zener diode is biased forward. until the reverse breakdown voltage value is reach.

. .  THANK YOU . 34 .