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Geographic Ìnformation System Geographic Ìnformation System

(GÌS) (GÌS)
Geographic Ìnformation System Geographic Ìnformation System
(GÌS) (GÌS)
What is GÌS? What is GÌS?
%hink About Geography %hink About Geography %hink About Geography %hink About Geography
What is Geography? What is Geography?
· · Association of American Geographers' definition: Association of American Geographers' definition:
· Geography is the science of place and space
· · Merriam Merriam- -Webster's definition: Webster's definition:
· A science that deals with the description, distribution,
and interaction of the diverse physical, biological,
and cultural features of the earth's surface
%hink About Geography %hink About Geography %hink About Geography %hink About Geography
Questions Geographers Ask Questions Geographers Ask
· Where is it located?
· Why is it located there?
· How and why are places different?
· How do people interact with their environment?
The answer to these questions is spatial data The answer to these questions is spatial data
History of Cartography History of Cartography History of Cartography History of Cartography
· · %he First Maps %he First Maps
· Rock walls
· Clay tablets
· · Uses of Maps Uses of Maps
· %opographic
· Celestial
· Cosmographic
Picture of a cuneiform tablet from
http://www.crystalinks.com/cuneiIormtablets.html
arly Maps of the World arly Maps of the World arly Maps of the World arly Maps of the World
Picture of a T-O map from &niversity oI Texas, Foundations oI Western European Cartography
ploring the World ploring the World ploring the World ploring the World
ercator map picture from Encyclopedia Britannica.
Maps at War Maps at War Maps at War Maps at War
Topographic map picture of Harper`s Ferry from www.DavidRumsey.com.
inked information reveals patterns. inked information reveals patterns.
What is Spatial Data? What is Spatial Data? What is Spatial Data? What is Spatial Data?
ocation Data ocation Data
· How Many? ÷ What Kind? ÷ Where?
Scale of Data Scale of Data
· ocal to Global to Beyond
Data Presentation Data Presentation
· Words, Charts, Graphs, %ables, or Maps
stimates are that stimates are that 80% 80%of all data has a of all data has a spatial spatial
component component
· Data from most sciences can be analyzed spatially spatially
A A Geographic Ìnformation System (GÌS) Geographic Ìnformation System (GÌS) links locational and
attribute information and enables a person to visualize
patterns, relationships, and trends. %his process gives an
entirely new perspective to data analysis that cannot be
easily seen in a table or list format or on a paper map.
Exploring data using GIS turns data into information Exploring data using GIS turns data into information
into knowledge into knowledge
Geographic Ìnformation Systems Geographic Ìnformation Systems
Definition of GIS Definition of GIS
Geographic Ìnformation Systems Geographic Ìnformation Systems
Definition of GIS Definition of GIS
Hardware Hardware
%he computer, peripherals, and sometimes servers on which the
GÌS operates
Software Software
Provides the functions and tools required to store, analyze, and
display data
Data Data
Data is stored as vector, raster, or attribute data
Methods Methods
%he guidelines, specifications, standards, and procedures for
collecting and analyzing data and applying GÌS
People People
GÌS needs people to ask the questions; choose, collect, and
analyze the data; and interpret the results
Five Components of GÌS Five Components of GÌS Five Components of GÌS Five Components of GÌS
A Complete GÌS A Complete GÌS A Complete GÌS A Complete GÌS
Visualization Visualization
· GIS as a tool to display spatial
data as a map
Database Management Database Management
· GIS as a tool to store and
organize spatial data
Spatial Analysis Spatial Analysis
· GIS as a tool to analyze and
interpret spatial data
GÌS Combines Spatial Data From Many Sources GÌS Combines Spatial Data From Many Sources GÌS Combines Spatial Data From Many Sources GÌS Combines Spatial Data From Many Sources
Sources of Spatial Data Sources of Spatial Data Sources of Spatial Data Sources of Spatial Data
Digitized and Scanned Maps Digitized and Scanned Maps
· Purchased, donated, free (Ìnternet)
· Created by user
Databases Databases
· %ables of data
GPS GPS
· Global Positioning System
· Accurate locations
Field Sampling of Attributes Field Sampling of Attributes
Remote Sensing and Aerial Photography Remote Sensing and Aerial Photography
GIS stores and organizes spatial data in databases GIS stores and organizes spatial data in databases
Database Database
ot easy to interpret ot easy to interpret
Database Database
ot easy to interpret ot easy to interpret
Visualization Visualization
orth a Thousand ords orth a Thousand ords
Visualization Visualization
orth a Thousand ords orth a Thousand ords
%wo Ways to Visualize Data %wo Ways to Visualize Data
"%he World¨ in GÌS "%he World¨ in GÌS
%wo Ways to Visualize Data %wo Ways to Visualize Data
"%he World¨ in GÌS "%he World¨ in GÌS
Raster Raster -- -- Grid Grid
· "Piels¨
· A location and value
· Satellite images and aerial
photos are already in this
format
Vector Vector -- -- inear inear
· Points, lines, and polygons
· "Features¨ (house, lake,
etc.)
· Attributes
· size, type, length, etc.
ReaI worId
Rivers Layer Rivers Layer Lakes Layer Lakes Layer CapitaIs Layer CapitaIs Layer
Roads Layer Roads Layer States Layer States Layer
Five Data Layers Five Data Layers
"AIike Features" "AIike Features"
Five Data Layers Five Data Layers
"AIike Features" "AIike Features"
%urning Data Ìnto Ìnformation %urning Data Ìnto Ìnformation %urning Data Ìnto Ìnformation %urning Data Ìnto Ìnformation
¨Spatial Analysis" ¨Spatial Analysis" ·· ·· Not ]ust a Nap Not ]ust a Nap
Asking a Question Asking a Question -- -- Ìnteraction Ìnteraction Asking a Question Asking a Question -- -- Ìnteraction Ìnteraction
Maps and Databases are Ìnteractive Maps and Databases are Ìnteractive Maps and Databases are Ìnteractive Maps and Databases are Ìnteractive
%he Goal of GÌS %he Goal of GÌS %he Goal of GÌS %he Goal of GÌS
%he goal of GÌS is to help people and companies do their work
better better, faster faster, and cheaper cheaper through
Visualization Visualization
· GIS provides users with quicker, more accurate representations of
spatial data
Database Management Database Management
· GIS makes it easier to keep the spatial data accurate and up to date
Spatial Analysis Spatial Analysis
· GIS helps users make more informed decisions
*herever Spatial Data nalysis Is eeded* *herever Spatial Data nalysis Is eeded*
Some Ways GÌS is Used Some Ways GÌS is Used Some Ways GÌS is Used Some Ways GÌS is Used
mergency Services mergency Services
· Fire and Police
nvironmental nvironmental
· Monitoring and Modeling
Business Business
· Site ocation, Delivery Systems
Ìndustry Ìndustry
· %ransportation, Communication, Mining, Pipelines,
Healthcare
Government Government
· ocal, State, Federal, Military
ducation ducation
· Research, %eaching %ool, Administration
Defense Management Defense Management Defense Management Defense Management
Real state Management Real state Management Real state Management Real state Management
ducation ducation ducation ducation
Utility Management Utility Management Utility Management Utility Management
%ransportation Management %ransportation Management %ransportation Management %ransportation Management
Public Safety Public Safety Public Safety Public Safety
Government Government Government Government
Hospital Facilities Hospital Facilities Hospital Facilities Hospital Facilities
GÌS on the Ìnternet GÌS on the Ìnternet GÌS on the Ìnternet GÌS on the Ìnternet
National Atlas National Atlas
· http://nationalatlas.gov
National Geographic Map Machine National Geographic Map Machine
· http://www.nationalgeographic.com/mapmachine
Store ocator Store ocator
· http://www.godiva.com
Wildlife Finder Wildlife Finder
· http://www.worldwildlife.org/wildfinder
GÌS Ìnfo GÌS Ìnfo
· http://www.gis.com
SRÌ SRÌ SRÌ SRÌ
SRÌ provides our users with a complete complete GÌS
· · Visualization Visualization
· · Database Management Database Management
· · Spatial nalysis Spatial nalysis
SRÌ offers more than just GÌS software. We offer
solutions.
Our goal is to make our users more successful Our goal is to make our users more successful
SRÌ SRÌ SRÌ SRÌ
· 40 Years of perience
· Annual Revenues of $660 Million
· %he Fifth argest Privately Held Software Company in the World
· 350,000+ Clients of SRÌ Software
· More %han One Million Users
SRÌ Regional Offices and Ìnternational Distributors SRÌ Regional Offices and Ìnternational Distributors SRÌ Regional Offices and Ìnternational Distributors SRÌ Regional Offices and Ìnternational Distributors
· eadquartered in RedIands, CaIifornia
· 10 Domestic RegionaI Offices
· InternationaI Distributors in More Than 80 Countries
· Users in More Than 150 Countries
ArcGÌS ArcGÌS Family of Products Family of Products
Making GÌS Knowledge Available %o Anyone . . . Making GÌS Knowledge Available %o Anyone . . .
. . . Ìntegrates With Other Systems Via Standards . . . Ìntegrates With Other Systems Via Standards
Use Use
Serve Serve
Author Author
Web Map Web Map
Viewer Viewer
Desktop Desktop plorer plorer
ArcGÌS Server ArcGÌS Server
Mobile Mobile nterprise nterprise
nvironment nvironment
Open Open
APÌs APÌs
Author/Serve/Use Author/Serve/Use
W W Maps Maps
W W Data Data
W W Models Models
W W Globes Globes
W W Metadata Metadata
ArcGÌS ArcGÌS Server Platform Server Platform
GÌS is a new medium for communication GÌS is a new medium for communication
· Newspapers
· Radio
· %elevision
· Ìnternet
· · GÌS GÌS
GÌS helps people to GÌS helps people to
· Better understand and collaborate
· %ell stories about conditions, situations, and events
· Forecast the future
Sharing GÌS With Others Sharing GÌS With Others Sharing GÌS With Others Sharing GÌS With Others
What Ìs GÌS Day? What Ìs GÌS Day?
· Ìnternational grassroots event to provide education about the power
and functionality of GÌS
· Builds GÌS understanding and collaboration in organizations, schools,
and communities
When %o Participate? When %o Participate?
· %hird Wednesday in November each year (held in conjunction with
National Geographic Society's Geography wareness eek)
· November 19, 2008 marks the tenth annual celebration
· GÌS Day events are held throughout the year!
Sharing GÌS With Others. GÌS Day Sharing GÌS With Others. GÌS Day Sharing GÌS With Others. GÌS Day Sharing GÌS With Others. GÌS Day
How Do Ì Participate? How Do Ì Participate?
· Host an vent (open house, workshop, demonstrations, press events)
· %each a Class
· Solicit Proclamations
· Mentor Students
· Conduct Webcasts
the possibiIities are endIess the possibiIities are endIess
GÌS Day GÌS Day GÌS Day GÌS Day
Why Participate? Why Participate?
· Promote your organization's use of GÌS
· Ìntroduce GÌS to new prospects, internal and eternal audiences
· Build community understanding of the value of GÌS
· Participate in GÌS educational initiatives and community service
projects
· stablish mentor relationships with local youth and epose students
to cutting edge technology and career options
· Market GÌS to potential clients
GÌS Day GÌS Day GÌS Day GÌS Day
'isit
wwwgisdaycom wwwgisdaycom
for more information
and to
register your event!
GÌS Day GÌS Day GÌS Day GÌS Day