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NEGOTIATION AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT

“Yes” helps open doors

TOPICS OF DISCUSSION
A. B.

What is conflict? How can conflict be managed successfully?

What is conflict? DEFINITION OF CONFLICT “Conflict is a form of interaction among parties that differ in interest. perceptions.” . and preferences.

with participants’ weak leadership strong leadership “groups” Involvement of third parties No neutral third party available Trusted. with Cohesive. neutral third party available . prestigious.What is conflict? EFFECTS OF VARIOUS DIMENSIONS OF CONFLICT DIMENSION The issue itself DIFFICULT TO EASY TO RESOLVE RESOLVE A matter of principle Simply dividing up something Small Size of the stakes Large Continuity of interaction Single transaction Long-term relationships Characteristics of Disorganized.

resentment. fear. dislike. mistrust. etc.What is conflict? TYPES OF CONFLICT Substantive conflict : • A fundamental disagreement over ends or goals to be pursued and the means for their accomplishment. Interpersonal difficulties that arise over feelings of anger. Emotional conflict : • .

What is conflict? PRIMARY LEVELS OF CONFLICT WITHIN ORGANIZATIONS • Intrapersonal conflict • Interpersonal conflict • Intergroup conflict • Interorganizational conflict .

Commonly refers to the competition and rivalry that characterize firms operating in the same markets.What is conflict? INTERPERSONAL CONFLICTS • Occurs between two or more individuals who are in opposition to one another. INTERGROUP CONFLICTS • INTERORGANIZATIONAL CONFLICTS • . Occurs among members of different teams or groups.

What is conflict? .

conflict management skills are vital to team harmony and productivity .How can conflict be managed successfully? WHY CONFLICT MANAGEMENT? • • • • Teams in engineering involve both interpersonal and technical competencies Members’ skills differ in both technical tasks and interpersonal relationship management These differences can result in conflict that impacts the successful completion of the project Therefore.

. • Effective resolution begins with a diagnosis of the stage to which conflict has developed and recognition of the causes of the conflict.How can conflict be managed successfully? CONFLICT RESOLUTION • A situation in which the underlying reasons for a given destructive conflict are eliminated.

How can conflict be managed successfully? STAGES OF CONFLICT .

How can conflict be managed successfully? CAUSES OF CONFLICT Vertical conflict • Occurs between hierarchical levels Occurs between persons or groups at the same hierarchical level Involves disagreements over who has authority and control over specific matters Horizontal conflict • Line-staff conflict • .

Role conflicts • Occur when the communication of task expectations proves inadequate or upsetting Occur when people or units are required to cooperate to meet challenging goals Occur as misunderstandings over such things as customer jurisdiction or scope of authority Workflow interdependencies • Domain ambiguities • .How can conflict be managed successfully? CAUSES OF CONFLICT – Cont.

working relationships are likely to suffer Power or value asymmetries • Occur when interdependent people or groups differ substantially from one another in status and influence or in values . Resource scarcity • When resources are scarce.How can conflict be managed successfully? CAUSES OF CONFLICT – Cont.

Appeals to common goals. Alterations in the use of mythology and scripts. . Hierarchical referral.How can conflict be managed successfully? INDIRECT CONFLICT MANAGEMENT APPROACHES • • • • Reduced interdependence.

How can conflict be managed successfully? REDUCED INTERDEPENDENCE • Used for adjusting level of interdependency when work-flow conflicts exists. Options : • • • Decoupling. Buffering. . Linking pins.

How can conflict be managed successfully? DECOUPLING • Taking action to eliminate or reduce the required contact between conflicting parties Used when the inputs of one group are the outputs of another group Persons expected to use knowledge of host group to help work better with other groups in order to accomplish mutual tasks BUFFERING • LINKING PIN ROLES • .

How can conflict be managed successfully? APPEALS TO COMMON GOALS • Focusing the attention of potentially conflicting parties on one mutually desirable conclusion HIERARCHICAL REFERRAL managers to reconcile • Problems are referred up the hierarchy for more senior ALTERING MYTHS AND SCRIPTS • Superficial management of conflict by using behavioral routines that become part of the organization’s culture .

• Uncooperative versus cooperative. Cooperativeness : • Attempting to satisfy the other party’s concern.How can conflict be managed successfully? DIRECT CONFLICT MANAGEMENT APPROACHES Based on the relative emphasis that a person places on assertiveness and cooperativeness. Assertiveness : • Attempting to satisfy one’s own concerns. • Unassertive versus assertive. • .

How can conflict be managed successfully? assertive Competition Collaboration Party’s desire to satisfy own concern Assertiveness Compromise unassertive Avoidance uncooperative Accommodation cooperative CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STYLES Cooperativeness Party’s desire to satisfy other’s concern .

Failing to participate in the situation and/or staying neutral at all costs. • • • .How can conflict be managed successfully? AVOIDANCE Unassertive and uncooperative. Downplaying disagreement.

• • • . Letting the other’s wishes rule. Smoothing over differences to maintain superficial harmony.How can conflict be managed successfully? ACCOMODATION OR SMOOTHING Unassertive and cooperative.

Seeking acceptable rather than optimal solutions so that no one totally wins or loses • • . Working toward partial satisfaction of everyone’s concerns.How can conflict be managed successfully? COMPROMISE • Moderate assertiveness and moderate cooperativeness.

. Working against the wishes of the other party. Fighting to dominate in win/lose competition.How can conflict be managed successfully? COMPETITION AND AUTHORITATIVE COMMAND • • • • Assertive and uncooperative. Forcing things to a favorable conclusion through the exercise of authority.

Seeking the satisfaction of everyone’s concerns by working through differences. Finding and solving problems so everyone gains as a result. • .How can conflict be managed successfully? COLLABORATION AND PROBLEM SOLVING • • Assertive and cooperative.

How can conflict be managed successfully? THE ISSUE OF “WHO WINS” ? Lose-lose conflict : • • Occurs when nobody gets what he or she wants. One part achieves its desires at the expense and to the exclusion of the other party’s desires. Competition and authoritative command are forms of winlose conflict. Avoidance. Win-lose conflict : • • . accommodation or smoothing. and compromise are forms of lose-lose conflict.

Win-win conflict : • • Both parties achieve their desires.How can conflict be managed successfully? THE ISSUE OF “WHO WINS” ? – Cont. Collaboration or problem solving is the only style that has a win-win resolution! .

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