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NAME-Rahul pawar(roll no.17) Sanket joshi(roll no.

25)

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Introduction Common viral infections

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A viral infection is any type of infection that is caused by a virus, which is even smaller than bacteria and is encapsulated by a protective coating so it is more difficult to kill than bacteria. This is why it is so difficult to treat viral infections. Viruses cannot grow or exist, though, without host cells. Viral infections can cause illnesses as minor as the common cold and as severe as AIDS. Antibiotics do not kill viruses and the use of them for viral infections just leads to antibiotic resistance. There are only a few antiviral medications available to treat very specific viruses, and they are not always effective.

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Viral hepatitis is liver inflammation due to a viral infection. It may present in acute (recent infection, relatively rapid onset) or chronic forms. The most common causes of viral hepatitis are the five unrelated hepatotropic viruses Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis D, and Hepatitis E

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The period of time between exposure to hepatitis and the onset of the illness is called the incubation period. The incubation period varies depending on the specific hepatitis virus. Hepatitis A has an incubation period of about 15-45 days; hepatitis B from 45-160 days, and hepatitis C from 2 weeks to 6 months. The most common are flu- like symptoms including: loss of appetite nausea vomiting fever weakness tiredness aching in the abdomen

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Prevention of hepatitis involves measures to avoid exposure to the viruses, using immunoglobulin in the event of exposure, and vaccines. Administration of immunoglobulin is called passive protection because antibodies from patients who have had viral hepatitis are given to the patient. Vaccination is called active protection because killed viruses or noninfective components of viruses are given to stimulate the body to produce its own antibodies.

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Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an acute viral infectious disease spread from person to person, primarily via the fecal-oral route Although around 90% of polio infections cause no symptoms at all, affected individuals can exhibit a range of symptoms if the virus enters the blood stream. In about 1% of cases the virus enters the central nervous system, preferentially infecting and destroying motor neurons, leading to muscle weakness and acute flaccid paralysis

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Poliomyelitis is caused by infection with a member of the genus Enterovirus known as poliovirus( Three serotypes of poliovirus have been identified²poliovirus type 1 (PV1), type 2 (PV2), and type 3 (PV3)²each with a slightly different capsid protein. All three are extremely virulent and produce the same disease symptoms. PV1 is the most commonly encountered form, and the one most closely associated with paralysis Individuals who are exposed to the virus, either through infection or by immunization with polio vaccine, develop immunity. A rare condition with a similar presentation, non-poliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with non-poliovirus enteroviruses.[

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Two types of vaccine are used throughout the world to combat polio. The first polio vaccine, based on one serotype of a live but attenuated (weakened) virus, After two doses of IPV (given by injection), 90% or more of individuals develop protective antibody to all three serotypes of poliovirus, and at least 99% are immune to poliovirus following three doses

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AIDS is a disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus.

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This condition progressively reduces the effectiveness of the immune system and leaves individuals susceptible to opportunistic infections and tumors

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Opportunistic infections are common in people with AIDS.[These infections affect nearly every organ system. People with AIDS also have an increased risk of developing various cancers. people with AIDS often have systemic symptoms of infection like fevers, sweats (particularly at night), swollen glands, chills, weakness, and weight loss. The specific opportunistic infections that AIDS patients develop depend in part on the prevalence of these infections in the geographic area in which the patient lives

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The three main transmission routes of HIV are sexual contact, exposure to infected body fluids or tissues, and from mother to fetus or child during perinatal period. It is possible to find HIV in the saliva, tears, and urine of infected individuals, but there are no recorded cases of infection by these secretions, and the risk of infection is negligible. Anti-retroviral treatment of infected patients also significantly reduces their ability to transmit HIV to others, by reducing the amount of virus in their bodily fluids to undetectable levels.

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Also known as nasopharyngitis, acute viral rhinopharyngitis, acute coryza, or a cold) is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system, caused primarily by rhinoviruses and coronaviruses.

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cough, sore throat, runny nose, and nasal congestion; sometimes this may be accompanied by conjunctivitis (pink eye),muscle aches, fatigue, headaches, shivering, and loss of appetite. Fever is often present thus creating a symptom picture which overlaps with influenza. Those suffering from colds often report a sensation of chilliness even though the cold is not generally accompanied by fever, and although chills are generally associated with fever, the sensation may not always be caused by actual fever. In one study, 60% of those suffering from a sore throat and upper respiratory tract infection reported headaches,often due to nasal congestion

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The best prevention is staying away from people who are infected,

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Additionally, experts frequently recommend thorough and regular washing of the hands, especially in healthcare environments,

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Is a viral disease of the human species, caused by the mumps virus

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Painful swelling of the salivary glands (classically the parotid gland) is the most typical presentation.[ Painful testicular swelling (orchitis) and rash may also occur.

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Parotid inflammation Fever Headache

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The most common preventative measure against mumps is immunization with a mumps vaccine

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The vaccine may be given separately or as part of the MMR immunization vaccine which also protects against measles and rubella

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It is a common illness among kids, particularly those under age 12. An itchy rash of spots that look like blisters can appear all over the body and be accompanied by flu-like symptoms. Chickenpox is caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) A person usually has only one episode of chickenpox, but VZV can lie dormant within the body and cause a different type of skin eruption later in life called shingles (or herpes zoster). Getting the chickenpox vaccine significantly lowers kids' chances of getting chickenpox, but they might still develop shingles later in life.

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Doctors recommend that kids receive the chickenpox vaccine when they're 12 to 15 months old and a booster shot at 4 to 6 years old.

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The vaccine is about 70% to 85% effective at preventing mild infection, and more than 95% effective in preventing moderate to severe forms of the infection.

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The antiviral medicine acyclovir may be prescribed for people with chickenpox who are at risk for complications. The drug, which can make the infection less severe, must be given within the first 24 hours after the rash appears. Acyclovir can have significant side effects, so it is only given when necessary. Your doctor can tell you if the medication is right for your child

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Measles, is an infection of the respiratory system caused by a virus, specifically a paramyxovirus of the genus Morbillivirus.

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Morbilliviruses, are enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA viruses

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The classical symptoms of measles include four day fevers, the three Cs²cough, coryza (runny nose) and conjunctivitis(red eyes). The fever may reach up to 40 °C (104 °F). The characteristic measles rash is classically described as a generalized, maculopapular,rash that begins several days after the fever starts. It starts on the head before spreading to cover most of the body, often causing itching. The rash is said to "stain", changing color from red to dark brown, before disappearing. The measles rash appears two to four days after initial symptoms and lasts for up to eight days.

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In developed countries, most children are immunized against measles by the age of 18 months, generally as part of a threepart MMR vaccine (measles, mumps, and rubella). A second dose is usually given to children between the ages of four and five, in order to increase rates of immunity. In developing countries where measles is highly endemic, the WHO recommend that two doses of vaccine be given at six months and at nine months of age.

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Thank you