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y AN INDUCTION MOTOR DERIVES ITS NAME FROM
THE FACT THAT THE CURRENT IN THE ROTOR
CONDUCTORS IS INDUCED BY THE MOTION OF
ROTOR CONDUCTORS RELATIVE TO THE
MAGNECTIC FIELD DEVELOPED BY THE STATOR
CURRENTS.
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y Various types of speed control methods of induction
motor are:
y (a) Pole Changing
y (b) Stator Voltage Control
y (c) Supply Frequency control
y (d) Eddy ²current Coupling
y (e) Rotor Resistance control
y (f) Slip Power Recovery
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y THIS METHOD OF SPEED CONTROL PROVIDES WIDE SPEED
CONTROL RANGE WITH GRADUAL VARIATION OF THE
SPEED THROUGHOUT THIS RANGE.
y Synchronous speed, Ns = 120 f/p
y Motor speed , N = (1-s) Ns
y so by varying synchronous speed we can vary the motor speed.
Voltage induced in stator is proportional to the product of supply
frequency and air gap.
y E=V (neglecting stator drop)
y Therefore supply voltage becomes prop. to supply frequency and
air gap flux.
y Any reduction in the supply frequency causes increase of air gap
flux.
y Therefore supply voltage becomes prop. to supply
frequency and air gap flux.
y Any reduction in the supply frequency causes increase
of air gap flux.
y And this leads the motor to saturation
y Motor saturation leads to increase in magnetizing
current & distorts the line current and voltage.
y Also it leads to increase in core loss and stator loss
which produces a high-pitch acoustic noise.
y Therefore , variable frequency control below rated
frequency is carried out at rated air gap flux & this is
done by varying supply voltage.
y V/f ratio is kept constant.
y The reason why this method is advantageous over other
methods is that ´it allows a variable speed drive with
good running & dynamic responseµ
     

r Here we modulate the width of pulses
(or their duty cycle) to convey
information.
r Example shows the PWM signal
(bottom picture)
r corresponding to a sinusoidal signal
(top picture).
r The PWM signal is typically generated
using a saw tooth waveform and a
comparator
     

r PWM is essentially means of
transmitting
information in a series of
pulses, where the data being
transmitted is encoded on
the width of the transmitted
pulse
r PWM is used in reducing
the total power provided to
a load - average power
delivered is proportional to
the modulation duty cycle
y When the sinusoidal pulse has a higher magnitude than
the triangular pulse, the comparator output is HIGH
y This output of comparator is used as a triggering pulse
to trigger the MOSFET·s in the PWM based inverter
circuit.
y The sinusoidal pulse is the Supply pulse of controlling
network
y Triangular pulse is the carrier pulse of the network
y The frequency can be varied by varying the external
resistance of the sinusoidal circuit using Potentiometer.
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y The overall project circuitry is classified into three parts:
y CONTROLLING PART
y POWER PART
y LOADING PART

y Controlling part:
y A square wave of 5ohz is generated by an op-amp and the frequency of
the square wave is varied through a pot ( )
y Square wave is filtered through a 2nd order low pass filter to generate
the required sine wave (50hz).
y Frequency of sine wave can be varied through the POT by changing
frequency of square wave.
y With the help of another OP-AMP, an inverting amplifier the sine wave
is inverted at a phase shift 180.
Now a high frequency square wave is passed through an integrator
to obtain a triangular wave (or carrier wave).
The two sine waves (actual and inverted) and the triangular wave
are compared using a comparator circuit.
y Comparator is used to compare two voltages and provide an
output indicating the relationship between two voltages.
y At last the output of the first comparator is ANDed with the
square wave of variable frequency by using chip 7408
y And output of the 2nd comparator is ANDed with the inverted
y square wave of variable frequency (inverted by using logic
inverter 7404) to generate the triggering pulse for triggering the
MOSFET
y The pulses are isolated trough four opto-couplers, so
that each POWER MOSFET of the inverter bridge is
being triggered separately.
y a a
y To run a motor we need voltage supply. In speed
variation of single phase induction motor
y by varying frequency variation method we have to vary
external resistance of the control part of the
y control circuit to vary frequency of the supply of
motor.
y The power part consists of two parts:
y Ôë 

 a
y Ôëë a
  
y The power part consists of two parts:
(a) Supply voltage part
y In supply part, 230V a.c. is required for the motor. To
obtain this voltage, a d.c supply of 220V is used which is
inverted to A.C by PWM based inverter.
y PWM based inverter circuit is used for frequency
control technique.
y (b) Inverter bridge part
y Inverter circuit consists of power MOSFET·s or BJT·s.
y MOSFET·s & BJT·s are triggered by the output of the
comparator which acts as a triggering pulse to the
MOSFET·s
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y switching gives the benefits of smooth torque at low
speeds,
y also complete speed control from zero upto the
nominal rated speed of the motor, with only small
additional motor losses
y A three-phase motor usually makes even less noise
when being driven from such a system than when
being run directly from the mains because the PWM
synthesis generates a purer sinewave than is normally
obtainable from the mains


 
y TELECOMMUNICATIONS
y POWER DELIVERY
y VOLTAGE REGULATION
y AUDIO EFFECTS AND AMPLIFICATION