Recap: Electric Field Strength

• Measured by taking a very small positive test charge, placing it in the field and measuring the force on it. • Vector quantity – in the direction of the force on the (positive) test charge  E=F/q • Unit is the newton per coulomb ( N/C )

• A test charge of + 2.0 x 10 -6 C experiences a force of 2.4 x 10 -3 N [E] when placed in an electric field. Determine the magnitude and direction of the electric field strength.  E=F/q  = (2.4 x 10 -3 N [E] )  (2.0 x 10 -6 C)
 

= 1.2 x 10 3 N/C [E]

Potential Difference


Potential Difference
• When a test point, q0, is moved between two points, A and B, in an electric field, if the charge is repelled by the field, work must be done to move the charge between the two points. • Work done against the field (WAB ) will increase the potential energy of the test charge.

Potential Difference (cont’d)
• Another way of describing this situation is to say that a potential difference exists between point A and B in the electric field. • Potential Difference V = W/q • Scalar (as is work) • Unit is the joule per coulomb (J/C) called the volt (V) in honor of Alessandro Volta (an Italian scientist)

Example 2
• When a charge of -4 x 10 -3 C is moved between two points in an Electric field, 0.8 J of work is done on the charge. What is the potential difference between the two points? • Solution V=W/q  = 0.8 J .  4 x 10 -3 C  = 200 V

Note: Don’t care about sign only want magnitude

Example 3
• Calculate the work done on an elementary charge that is moved between two points in an electric field with a potential difference of 1V. Rearrange eqn. W = qV  = (1.6 x 10 -19 C) (1.0V)  = 1.6 x 10 -19 J

This unit of energy is frequently used in Nuclear and Atomic Physics. This is an

electron – volt (eV).

Electric Potential
• Need to establish a reference point of 0 V. • For an isolated charge:
– reference point is infinitely far from the charge

• Ground may be taken as a reference point

• The electric potential at a point is defined as the work needed to

Millikan Oil Drop Experiment

• • By changing the potential difference between the plates, the electric field strength was varied until the upward electric force on the droplet was balanced by the weight of the droplet. • Millikan was then able to calculate the electric charge on each oil droplet he observed. • By measuring thousands, he determined that the charges were all multiples of 1.60 x 10-19 C • Thus concluded that the smallest charge,

• Read in text pg 577 – 579 • Do question 16 to end on packet • Test corrections

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.