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# Vectors

Sign Conventions

It·s important to have a consistent set of algebraic signs to indicate direction for vectors« Why do we need them? A (+) or a (-) will tell us the direction the vector is going. Sign conventions: (+): vector points right or up. (-): vector points left or down.

Sign Conventions

Sign conventions: (+): vector points right or up. (-): vector points left or down.

**Topic: Vector Addition
**

Vectors are usually represented by a line with an arrowhead at one end which indicates the direction. In red is a displacement vector.

Displacement ² distance & direction from the origin/reference. The displacement above is 8 blocks North (magnitude and direction)

**Topic: Vector Addition
**

If the person now walks 4 blocks South, what is the new displacement?

**Topic: Vector Addition
**

If the person now walks 4 blocks South, what is the new displacement? To figure this out, we must use vector addition: + =?

**Topic: Vector Addition
**

If the person now walks 4 blocks South, what is the new displacement? To figure this out, we must use vector addition: + =?

**Topic: Vector Addition
**

If the person now walks 4 blocks South, what is the new displacement? To figure this out, we must use vector addition: + =

This method is called the ´tip to tailµ method. The new displacement is 4 blocks North.

Topic: Vector Addition Note how the displacement vector is drawn: It starts at the tail of the first vector and ends at the tip of the last vector.

**Topic: Vector Addition
**

Let·s go back to our original example: person standing 8 blocks North. What if she walks 5 blocks East. What is the new displacement? What is the resultant?

**Topic: Vector Addition
**

Let·s go back to our original example: person standing 8 blocks North. What if she walks 5 blocks East. What is the new displacement? What is the resultant?

**Topic: Vector Addition
**

Let·s go back to our original example: person standing 8 blocks North. What if she walks 5 blocks East. What is the new displacement? What is the resultant?

The direction is indicated by the purple vector. How about the magnitude?

**Topic: Vector Addition
**

Let·s go back to our original example: person standing 8 blocks North. What if she walks 5 blocks East. What is the new displacement? What is the resultant?

The direction is indicated by the purple vector. How about the magnitude?

Topic: Vector Addition

A2 + B2 = C2

To summarize: 1. If we have parallel vectors, then we can add them algebraically, using the tip to tail method. 2. a. If we have vectors that are at right angles, we draw the vectors tip to tail. b. We draw the resultant to get the direction. c. We use the Pythagorean theorem to get the magnitude of the resultant. These methods work because we can move a vectors around as long as the length and direction stay the same!

Topic: Vector Addition

Subtracting Vectors

A²B=?

Example Problem

What is 30 m/s north minus 15 m/s east?

Example Problem

What is 30 m/s north minus 15 m/s east? Question:

How many vectors are there in this problem?

Example Problem

What is 30 m/s north minus 15 m/s east? Question:

How many vectors are there in this problem?

Words

Math

What is 30 m/s north minus 15 m/s east?

X m A ! 30 s north

X m B ! 15 s east

Words

Math

What is 30 m/s north minus 15 m/s east?

X m A ! 30 s north

X m B ! 15 s east

Mathematically

A²B=?

Words

Math

What is 30 m/s north minus 15 m/s east?

X m A ! 30 s north

X m B ! 15 s east

Mathematically

A²B=?

The Problem: We only know how to add vectors.

The Trick:

Make it Addition

A ² B = A + (² B)

X ! 30 m north s

X B ! 15 m east s

The Trick:

Make it Addition

A ² B = A + (² B)

Guess: what is ² B?

X ! 30 m north s X B ! 15 m east s

Time Out!

C This is C

Time Out!

C

Point in the direction of ² C!

Time Out!

C

Point in the direction of ² C!

Time Out!

C -C

Point in the direction of ² C!

Continue

The Trick:

Make it Addition

A ² B = A + (² B)

- B is B in the opposite direction

X ! 30 m north s

X B ! 15 m east s

The Trick:

Make it Addition

A ² B = A + (² B) A ² B = A + (² B)

- B is B in the opposite direction

X ! 30 m north s

X B ! 15 m east s

A + (² B)

1 cm = 5 m/s

Graphical Addition of Vectors 1. Make a scale drawing. 2. Move the vectors tipto-tail. 3. Draw the resultant vector (free tail to free tip). 4. Measure the length of the resultant with a ruler. 5. Measure the direction of the resultant with a protractor.

A + (² B)

Which are tip-to-tail?

1) 2)

Graphical Addition of Vectors 1. Make a scale drawing. 2. Move the vectors tipto-tail. 3. Draw the resultant vector (free tail to free tip). 4. Measure the length of the resultant with a ruler. 5. Measure the direction of the resultant with a protractor.

3)

4)

A + (² B)

Which are tip-to-tail?

1) 2)

Graphical Addition of Vectors 1. Make a scale drawing. 2. Move the vectors tipto-tail. 3. Draw the resultant vector (free tail to free tip). 4. Measure the length of the resultant with a ruler. 5. Measure the direction of the resultant with a protractor.

3)

4)

A + (² B)

1) 2)

a

b

c

Draw the resultant for 1): from point ___ to point ___?

A + (² B)

1) 2)

a

b

c

Draw the resultant for 1):

c a from point ___ to point ___?

A + (² B)

1)

d

2)

e

f

Draw the resultant for 2): from point ___ to point ___?

A + (² B)

1)

d

2)

e

f

Draw the resultant for 2): from point ___ to point ___? f d

A + (² B)

1) 2)

Notice: the resultant is the same for option 1) and option 2).

A + (² B)

1 cm = 5 m/s 6.70 cm

(6.70)(5) m/s = 33.5 m/s

A + (² B)

63 Ü

A + (² B)

1 cm = 5 m/s 63 Ü

**33.5 m/s @ 63Ü north of west
**

Your final answer!

**Motion Notes (Continued):
**

10. Subtracting Vector a. The negative sign makes one vector point in the opposite direction. X X X A i. Ex:X B has the same magnitude as and the opposite direction b. Deal with the directions, then add the vectors. X X X X i. A B ! A ( B)

**Topic: Vector Addition II
**

Another way of determining the result of adding 2 vectors (i.e. resultant), is the parallelogram method. This method will work even if the vectors are not at right angles« Right angle Other angle

**Topic: Vector Addition II
**

Another way of determining the result of adding 2 vectors (i.e. resultant), is the parallelogram method. This method will work even if the vectors are not at right angles« Right angle Other angle

**Topic: Vector Addition II
**

Notice how I have drawn these vectors to do the addition, tail to tail« To add the vectors, draw a parallelogram (a shape in which opposite sides are parallel) by drawing parallel vectors shown as dashed lines below« Right angle Other angle

The tails are drawn together

The tails are drawn together

**Topic: Vector Addition II
**

The resultant is the diagonal of the parallelogram, shown in purple below« For the direction of the resultant, measure with a protractor. For the magnitude of the resultant, measure with a ruler. Right angle Other angle

The tails are drawn together

The tails are drawn together

**Topic: Components of Vectors
**

Sometimes we need to change a single vector into two equivalent vectors at right angles to each other. The equivalent vectors are called components. Any vector can be ´resolvedµ into components. This process is called vector resolution. Every vector will have a component along the x-axis and the y-axis.

**Topic: Components of Vectors
**

Suppose we have a vector V in a certain direction« Draw horizontal and vertical lines from the tail of the vector to y make an x and y axis.

V

x

**Topic: Components of Vectors
**

Imagine you are shining a flashlight downward on the vector from atop of the y-axis« You can imagine that this creates a shadow on the xaxis« The length of the shadow on the x-axis is the x component (horizontal component) of the vector.

V

Vx

**Topic: Components of Vectors
**

Now shine a flashlight towards the vector from the x-axis« Similarly you can imagine that this creates a shadow on the y-axis« The length of the shadow on the y-axis is the y-component (vertical component) of the vector

V Vy

**Topic: Components of Vectors
**

Below are the x & y components of the vector V, Vx = horizontal component Vy = vertical component

V

Vy

Vx

**Topic: Components of Vectors
**

Try these:

B A

**Topic: Components of Vectors
**

Try these:

B A By Ay Bx

Ax

Polar Coordinate System (Direction and Magnitude)

**Polar ´Mathµ (Cartesian)
**

r! x y

2 2

x ! r os U y ! r sin U ¨ y¸ U ! tan © ¹ ª xº

1 r y x

Vector addition

Two Ways: 1. Graphically: Draw vectors to scale, Tip to Tail, and the resultant is the straight line from start to finish 2. Mathematically: Employ vector math analysis to solve for the resultant vector

A = 5.0 m @ 0° B = 5.0 m @ 90° Solve A + B

Graphically 2-D Right

R

R=7.1 m @ 45°

Start

Remember

You can add vectors in any order and yield the same resultant.

A = Ax + Ay Ax =A cos Ay = A sin

Components of Vectors

A Ay Ax

As long as you draw the x component first

**Table Method Equation
**

Add all X components together Add all Y components together Final Rx Final Ry

Subtracting Vectors

Simply add or subtract 180° (keep between 0° and 360°) to the direction of the vector being subtracted (¶flip·) You just ADD the OPPOSITE vector (there is no subtraction in vector math)

Subtracting Vectors