Proiect Management - CPM/PERT

Siva Prasad Darla
Sr Lecturer
School oI Mechanical & Building Sciences
darla/smbs/vit 2
What exactly is a proiect?
PM 1 I`m in charge oI the construction oI a retail development in the
centre oI a large town. There are 26 retail units and a super market in
the complex. My main responsibilities are to co-ordinate the work oI
the various contractors to ensure that the proiect is completed to
speciIication, within budget and on time.
PM 2 I am directing a team oI research scientists. We are running
trials on a new analgesic drug on behalI oI a pharmaceutical company.
It is my responsibility to design the experiments and make sure that
proper scientiIic and legal procedures are Iollowed, so that our results
can be subiected to independent statistical analysis.
PM 3- The international aid agency which employs me is sending me to
New Delhi to organize the introduction oI multimedia resources at a
teachers` training college. My role is quite complex. I have to make sure
that appropriate resources are purchased- and in some cases developed
within the college. I also have to encourage the acceptance oI these
resources by lecturers and students within the college.
darla/smbs/vit 3
PM 2 I am directing a team oI research scientists. We are running
trials on a new analgesic drug on behalI oI a pharmaceutical company.
It is my responsibility to design the experiments and make sure that
proper scientiIic and legal procedures are Iollowed, so that our results
can be subiected to independent statistical analysis.
PM 3- The international aid agency which employs me is sending me to
New Delhi to organize the introduction oI multimedia resources at a
teachers` training college. My role is quite complex. I have to make sure
that appropriate resources are purchased- and in some cases developed
within the college. I also have to encourage the acceptance oI these
resources by lecturers and students within the college.
PM 1 I`m in charge oI the construction oI a retail development in the
centre oI a large town. There are 26 retail units and a super market in
the complex. My main responsibilities are to co-ordinate the work oI
the various contractors to ensure that the proiect is completed to
speciIication, within budget and on time.
Project is not defined by the type of outcome it is set up to achieve
darla/smbs/vit 4
Characteristic oI a proiect
A proiect is a temporary endeavour involving a connected sequence oI
activities and a range oI resources, which is designed to achieve a
speciIic and unique outcome and which operates within time, cost
and quality constraints and which is oIten used to introduce change.
A unique, one-time operational activity or eIIort
Requires the completion oI a large number oI interrelated activities
Established to achieve speciIic obiective
Resources, such as time and/or money, are limited
Typically has its own management structure
Need leadership
Proiect
darla/smbs/vit 5
Examples
constructing houses, Iactories, shopping malls,
athletic stadiums or arenas
developing military weapons systems, aircraIts,
new ships
launching satellite systems
constructing oil pipelines
developing and implementing new computer
systems
planning concert, Iootball games, or basketball
tournaments
introducing new products into market
darla/smbs/vit 6
What is proiect management
· The application oI a collection oI tools and techniques
to direct the use oI diverse resources towards the
accomplishment oI a unique, complex, one time task
within time, cost and quality constraints.
· Its origins lie in World War II, when the military
authorities used the techniques oI operational research
to plan the optimum use oI resources.
· One oI these techniques was the use oI networks to
represent a system oI related activities
darla/smbs/vit 7
Proiect Management Process
· Proiect planning
· Proiect scheduling
· Proiect control
· Proiect team
made up oI individuals Irom various areas and departments within a
company
· Matrix organization
a team structure with members Irom Iunctional areas, depending on skills
required
· Proiect Manager
most important member oI proiect team
· Scope statement
a document that provides an understanding, iustiIication, and expected result
oI a proiect
· Statement oI work
written description oI obiectives oI a proiect
· Organizational Breakdown Structure
a chart that shows which organizational units are responsible Ior work items
· Responsibility Assignment Matrix
shows who is responsible Ior work in a proiect
darla/smbs/vit 8
Work breakdown structure
· A method oI breaking down a proiect into individual
elements ( components, subcomponents, activities and
tasks) in a hierarchical structure which can be scheduled
and cost
· It deIines tasks that can be completed independently oI
other tasks, Iacilitating resource allocation, assignment
oI responsibilities and measurement and control oI the
proiect
· It is Ioundation oI proiect planning
· It is developed beIore identiIication oI dependencies and
estimation oI activity durations
· It can be used to identity the tasks in the CPM and PERT
darla/smbs/vit 9
wo(| 8(ea|doWr 3l(uclu(e lo( Corpule( 0(de(
P(ocess|rd 3vsler P(ojecl
wo(| 8(ea|doWr 3l(uclu(e lo( Corpule( 0(de(
P(ocess|rd 3vsler P(ojecl
darla/smbs/vit 10
Proiect Planning
· Resource Availability and/or Limits
Due date, late penalties, early completion
incentives
Budget
· Activity InIormation
IdentiIy all required activities
Estimate the resources required (time) to complete
each activity
Immediate predecessor(s) to each activity needed
to create interrelationships
darla/smbs/vit 11
Proiect Scheduling and Control Techniques
Gantt Chart
Critical Path Method (CPM)
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
darla/smbs/vit 12
Graph or bar chart with a bar Ior each proiect activity that shows
passage oI time
Provides visual display oI proiect schedule Provides visual display oI proiect schedule
Gantt Chart
darla/smbs/vit 13
History oI CPM/PERT
· Critical Path Method (CPM)
E I Du Pont de Nemours & Co. (1957) Ior construction oI new
chemical plant and maintenance shut-down
Deterministic task times
Activity-on-node network construction
Repetitive nature oI iobs
· Proiect Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
U S Navy (1958) Ior the POLARIS missile program
Multiple task time estimates (probabilistic nature)
Activity-on-arrow network construction
Non-repetitive iobs (R & D work)
darla/smbs/vit 14
Proiect Network
· Network analysis is the general name given to certain speciIic
techniques which can be used Ior the planning, management and
control oI proiects
· Use oI nodes and arrows
Arrows An arrow leads Irom tail to head directionally
Indicate ACTIVITY, a time consuming eIIort that is required to perIorm a
part oI the work.
Nodes A node is represented by a circle
- Indicate EVENT, a point in time where one or more activities start and/or
Iinish.
· Activity
A task or a certain amount oI work required in the proiect
Requires time to complete
Represented by an arrow
· Dummy Activity
Indicates only precedence relationships
Does not require any time oI eIIort
darla/smbs/vit 15
· Event
Signals the beginning or ending oI an activity
Designates a point in time
Represented by a circle (node)
· Network
Shows the sequential relationships among activities using nodes
and arrows
Activity-on-node (AON)
nodes represent activities, and arrows show precedence
relationships
Activity-on-arrow (AOA)
arrows represent activities and nodes are events Ior points in
time
Proiect Network
darla/smbs/vit 16
AOA Proiect Network Ior House
3
2 0
1
3
1 1
1
1 2 4 6 7
3
5
Lay
foundation
Design house
and obtain
financing
Order and
receive
materials
Dummy
Finish
work
Select
carpet
Select
paint
Build
house
AON Proiect Network Ior House
1
3
2
2
4
3
3
1
5
1
6
1
7
1 Start
Design house and
obtain financing
Order and receive
materials
Select paint
Select carpet
Lay foundations
Build house
Finish work
darla/smbs/vit 17
Situations in network diagram
A
B
C
A must Iinish beIore either B or C can start
A
B
C
both A and B must Iinish beIore C can start
D
C
B
A
both A and C must Iinish beIore either oI B
or D can start
A
C
B
D
Dummy
A must Iinish beIore B can start
both A and C must Iinish beIore D can start
darla/smbs/vit 18
Concurrent Activities
2 3
Lay foundation Lay foundation
Order materiaI Order materiaI
(a) (a) Incorrect precedence Incorrect precedence
reIationship reIationship
(b) (b) Correct precedence Correct precedence
reIationship reIationship
3
4 2
Dummy Dummy
Lay Lay
foundation foundation
Order materiaI Order materiaI
1 1
2 2 0 0
darla/smbs/vit 19
Network example
Illustration oI network analysis oI a minor redesign oI a product and
its associated packaging.
1he kev question is: How long will it take to complete this project ?
darla/smbs/vit 20
For clarity, this list is kept to a minimum by speciIying only
immediate relationships, that is relationships involving activities
that "occur near to each other in time".
darla/smbs/vit 21
Questions to prepare activity network
· Is this a Start Activity?
· Is this a Finish Activity?
· What Activity Precedes this?
· What Activity Follows this?
· What Activity is Concurrent with this?
darla/smbs/vit 22
CPM calculation
· Path
A connected sequence oI activities leading Irom
the starting event to the ending event
· Critical Path
The longest path (time); determines the proiect
duration
· Critical Activities
All oI the activities that make up the critical path
darla/smbs/vit 23
Forward Pass
· Earliest Start Time (ES)
earliest time an activity can start
ES ÷ maximum EF oI immediate predecessors
· Earliest Iinish time (EF)
earliest time an activity can Iinish
earliest start time plus activity time
EF÷ ES ¹ t
alesl 3la(l T|re |3)
alesl l|re ar acl|v|lv car sla(l W|lroul de|av|rd c(|l|ca| palr l|re
3= - 9
alesl l|r|sr l|re |)
|alesl l|re ar acl|v|lv car oe corp|eled W|lroul de|av|rd c(|l|ca| palr
l|re
3 = r|r|rur 3 ol |rred|ale p(edecesso(s
Backward Pass
darla/smbs/vit 24
CPM analysis
· Draw the CPM network
· Analyze the paths through the network
· Determine the Iloat Ior each activity
Compute the activity`s Iloat
Iloat ÷ LS - ES ÷ LF - EF
Float is the maximum amount oI time that this activity can be
delay in its completion beIore it becomes a critical activity,
i.e., delays completion oI the proiect
· Find the critical path is that the sequence oI activities and events
where there is no 'slack¨ i.e.. Zero slack
Longest path through a network
· Find the proiect duration is minimum proiect completion time
darla/smbs/vit 25
CPM Example:
· PM Network
a, 6 a, 6 a, 6 a, 6
f, 15 f, 15 f, 15 f, 15
b, 8 b, 8 b, 8 b, 8
c, 5 c, 5 c, 5 c, 5
e, 9 e, 9 e, 9 e, 9
d, 13 d, 13 d, 13 d, 13
g, 17 g, 17 g, 17 g, 17
h, 9 h, 9 h, 9 h, 9
i, 6 i, 6 i, 6 i, 6
j, 12 j, 12 j, 12 j, 12
darla/smbs/vit 26
CPM Example
· S and F Times
a, 6 a, 6 a, 6 a, 6
f, 15 f, 15 f, 15 f, 15
b, 8 b, 8 b, 8 b, 8
c, 5 c, 5 c, 5 c, 5
e, 9 e, 9 e, 9 e, 9
d, 13 d, 13 d, 13 d, 13
g, 17 g, 17 g, 17 g, 17
h, 9 h, 9 h, 9 h, 9
i, 6 i, 6 i, 6 i, 6
j, 12 j, 12 j, 12 j, 12
0 6
0 8
0 5
darla/smbs/vit 27
CPM Example
· S and F Times
a, 6 a, 6 a, 6 a, 6
f, 15 f, 15 f, 15 f, 15
b, 8 b, 8 b, 8 b, 8
c, 5 c, 5 c, 5 c, 5
e, 9 e, 9 e, 9 e, 9
d, 13 d, 13 d, 13 d, 13
g, 17 g, 17 g, 17 g, 17
h, 9 h, 9 h, 9 h, 9
i, 6 i, 6 i, 6 i, 6
j, 12 j, 12 j, 12 j, 12
0 6
0 8
0 5
5 14
8 21
6 23
6 21
darla/smbs/vit 28
CPM Example
· S and F Times
a, 6 a, 6 a, 6 a, 6
f, 15 f, 15 f, 15 f, 15
b, 8 b, 8 b, 8 b, 8
c, 5 c, 5 c, 5 c, 5
e, 9 e, 9 e, 9 e, 9
d, 13 d, 13 d, 13 d, 13
g, 17 g, 17 g, 17 g, 17
h, 9 h, 9 h, 9 h, 9
i, 6 i, 6 i, 6 i, 6
j, 12 j, 12 j, 12 j, 12
0 6
0 8
0 5
5 14
8 21
21 33
6 23
21 30
23 29
6 21
Project's EF = 33 Project's EF = 33
darla/smbs/vit 29
CPM Example
· LS and LF Times
a, 6 a, 6 a, 6 a, 6
f, 15 f, 15 f, 15 f, 15
b, 8 b, 8 b, 8 b, 8
c, 5 c, 5 c, 5 c, 5
e, 9 e, 9 e, 9 e, 9
d, 13 d, 13 d, 13 d, 13
g, 17 g, 17 g, 17 g, 17
h, 9 h, 9 h, 9 h, 9
i, 6 i, 6 i, 6 i, 6
j, 12 j, 12 j, 12 j, 12
0 6
0 8
0 5
5 14
8 21
21 33
6 23
21 30
23 29
6 21
21 33
27 33
24 33
darla/smbs/vit 30
CPM Example CPM Example
· LS and LF Times
a, 6 a, 6 a, 6 a, 6
f, 15 f, 15 f, 15 f, 15
b, 8 b, 8 b, 8 b, 8
c, 5 c, 5 c, 5 c, 5
e, 9 e, 9 e, 9 e, 9
d, 13 d, 13 d, 13 d, 13
g, 17 g, 17 g, 17 g, 17
h, 9 h, 9 h, 9 h, 9
i, 6 i, 6 i, 6 i, 6
j, 12 j, 12 j, 12 j, 12
0 6
0 8
0 5
5 14
8 21
21 33
6 23
21 30
23 29
6 21
4 10
0 8
7 12
12 21
21 33
27 33
8 21
10 27
24 33
18 24
darla/smbs/vit 31
CPM Example CPM Example
· Float
a, 6 a, 6 a, 6 a, 6
f, 15 f, 15 f, 15 f, 15
b, 8 b, 8 b, 8 b, 8
c, 5 c, 5 c, 5 c, 5
e, 9 e, 9 e, 9 e, 9
d, 13 d, 13 d, 13 d, 13
g, 17 g, 17 g, 17 g, 17
h, 9 h, 9 h, 9 h, 9
i, 6 i, 6 i, 6 i, 6
j, 12 j, 12 j, 12 j, 12
0 6
0 8
0 5
5 14
8 21
21 33
6 23
21 30
23 29
6 21
3 9
0 8
7 12
12 21
21 33
27 33
8 21
10 27
24 33
9 24
3
4
3
3
4
0
0
7
7
0
darla/smbs/vit 32
CPM Example
· ritical Path
a, 6 a, 6 a, 6 a, 6
f, 15 f, 15 f, 15 f, 15
b, 8 b, 8 b, 8 b, 8
c, 5 c, 5 c, 5 c, 5
e, 9 e, 9 e, 9 e, 9
d, 13 d, 13 d, 13 d, 13
g, 17 g, 17 g, 17 g, 17
h, 9 h, 9 h, 9 h, 9
i, 6 i, 6 i, 6 i, 6
j, 12 j, 12 j, 12 j, 12
darla/smbs/vit 33
PERT
· PERT is based on the assumption that an activity`s duration
Iollows a probability distribution instead oI being a single value
· Three time estimates are required to compute the parameters oI
an activity`s duration distribution:
pessimistic time (t
p
) - the time the activity would take iI
things did not go well
most likely time (t
m
) - the consensus best estimate oI the
activity`s duration
optimistic time (t
o
) - the time the activity would take iI things
did go well
ean (expected time): t
e
=
t
p
4 t
m
t
o
6
Variance: V
t
=9
2
=
t
p
t
o
6
2
darla/smbs/vit 34
PERT analysis
· Draw the network.
· Analyze the paths through the network and Iind the critical path.
· The length oI the critical path is the mean oI the proiect duration
probability distribution which is assumed to be normal
· The standard deviation oI the proiect duration probability
distribution is computed by adding the variances oI the critical
activities (all oI the activities that make up the critical path) and
taking the square root oI that sum
· Probability computations can now be made using the normal
distribution table.
darla/smbs/vit 35
Probability computation
Determine probability that proiect is completed within speciIied time
Z ÷
x - 3
9
where 3 ÷ t
p
÷ proiect mean time
9 ÷ proiect standard mean time
x ÷ (proposed ) speciIied time
darla/smbs/vit 36
Normal Distribution oI Proiect Time
3 t
p
Time x
Z9
!robabiIity
darla/smbs/vit 37
PERT Example
Immed. Optimistic Most Likely Pessimistic
Activity Predec. Time (Hr.) Time (Hr.) Time (Hr.)
A -- 4 6 8
B -- 1 4.5 5
C A 3 3 3
D A 4 5 6
E A 0.5 1 1.5
F B,C 3 4 5
G B,C 1 1.5 5
H E,F 5 6 7
I E,F 2 5 8
J D,H 2.5 2.75 4.5
K G,I 3 5 7
darla/smbs/vit 38
PERT Example

FF
EE
GG
ÌÌ
H H
KK
JJ
PERT Network
darla/smbs/vit 39
PERT Example
Activity Expected Time Variance
A 6 4/9
B 4 4/9
C 3 0
D 5 1/9
E 1 1/36
F 4 1/9
G 2 4/9
H 6 1/9
I 5 1
J 3 1/9
K 5 4/9
darla/smbs/vit 40
PERT Example
Activity ES EF LS LF Slack
A 0 6 0 6 0 *critical
B 0 4 5 9 5
C 6 9 6 9 0 *
D 6 11 15 20 9
E 6 7 12 13 6
F 9 13 9 13 0 *
G 9 11 16 18 7
H 13 19 14 20 1
I 13 18 13 18 0 *
J 19 22 20 23 1
K 18 23 18 23 0 *
darla/smbs/vit 41
PERT Example
V
path
÷ V
A
¹ V
C
¹ V
F
¹ V
I
¹ V
K
÷ 4/9 ¹ 0 ¹ 1/9 ¹ 1 ¹ 4/9
÷ 2
9
path
÷ 1.414
z ÷ (24 - 23)/9(24-23)/1.414 ÷ .71
From the Standard Normal Distribution table:
P(z · .71) ÷ .5 ¹ .2612 ÷ .7612
PROJECT COST
darla/smbs/vit 43
Cost consideration in proiect
· Proiect managers may have the option or requirement to crash the
proiect, or accelerate the completion oI the proiect.
· This is accomplished by reducing the length oI the critical path(s).
· The length oI the critical path is reduced by reducing the duration
oI the activities on the critical path.
· II each activity requires the expenditure oI an amount oI money to
reduce its duration by one unit oI time, then the proiect manager
selects the least cost critical activity, reduces it by one time unit,
and traces that change through the remainder oI the network.
· As a result oI a reduction in an activity`s time, a new critical path
may be created.
· When there is more than one critical path, each oI the critical
paths must be reduced.
· II the length oI the proiect needs to be reduced Iurther, the
process is repeated.
darla/smbs/vit 44
Proiect Crashing
· Crashing
reducing proiect time by expending additional resources
· Crash time
an amount oI time an activity is reduced
· Crash cost
cost oI reducing activity time
· Goal
reduce proiect duration at minimum cost
darla/smbs/vit 45
Activity crashing
Activity time
Crashing activity
Crash
time
Crash
cost
Normal Activity
Normal
time
Normal
cost
Slope ÷ crash cost per unit time
darla/smbs/vit 46
Time-Cost Relationship
Crashing costs increase as proiect duration decreases
Indirect costs increase as proiect duration increases
Reduce proiect length as long as crashing costs are less than
indirect costs
Time-Cost TradeoII
time
Direct cost
Indirect
cost
Total proiect cost
Min total cost ÷
optimal proiect
time
darla/smbs/vit 47
Proiect Crashing example
1 1
12 12
2 2
8 8
4 4
12 12
3 3
4 4
5 5
4 4
ô ô
4 4
7 7
4 4
darla/smbs/vit 48
Time Cost data
Activity Normal
time
Normal
cost Rs
Crash
time
Crash
cost Rs
Allowable
crash time
slope
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
12
8
4
12
4
4
4
3000
2000
4000
50000
500
500
1500
7
5
3
9
1
1
3
5000
3500
7000
71000
1100
1100
22000
5
3
1
3
3
3
1
400
500
3000
7000
200
200
7000
75000 110700
darla/smbs/vit 49
1
12
2
8
3
4
5
4
ô
4
7
4
R400
R500
R3000
R7000
R200
R200
R700
12
4
Proiect duration ÷ 36
From...
To...
1
7
2
8
3
4
5
4
ô
4
7
4
R400
R500
R3000
R7000
R200
R200
R700
12
4
Proiect
duration ÷ 31
Additional cost
÷ R2000
darla/smbs/vit 50
BeneIits oI CPM/PERT
· UseIul at many stages oI proiect management
· Mathematically simple
· Give critical path and slack time
· Provide proiect documentation
· UseIul in monitoring costs
·How long will the entire proiect take to be completed? What are the
risks involved?
·Which are the critical activities or tasks in the proiect which could
delay the entire proiect iI they were not completed on time?
·Is the proiect on schedule, behind schedule or ahead oI schedule?
·II the proiect has to be Iinished earlier than planned, what is the best
way to do this at the least cost?
CPM/PERT can answer the Iollowing important
questions:
darla/smbs/vit 51
Limitations to CPM/PERT
· Clearly deIined, independent and stable activities
· SpeciIied precedence relationships
· Over emphasis on critical paths
· Deterministic CPM model
· Activity time estimates are subiective and depend on iudgment
· PERT assumes a beta distribution Ior these time estimates, but
the actual distribution may be diIIerent
· PERT consistently underestimates the expected proiect
completion time due to alternate paths becoming critical
To overcome the limitation, Monte Carlo simulations can be
perIormed on the network to eliminate the optimistic bias
darla/smbs/vit 52
Computer SoItware
Ior Proiect Management
· Microsoft Proiect (MicrosoIt Corp.)
· MacProiect (Claris Corp.)
· PowerProiect (ASTA Development Inc.)
· Primavera Proiect Planner (Primavera)
· Proiect Scheduler (Scitor Corp.)
· Proiect Workbench (ABT Corp.)
darla/smbs/vit 53
Practice Example
A social proiect manager is Iaced with a proiect with the Iollowing
activities:
ctivity Description Duration
Social work team to live in village 5w
Social research team to do survey 12w
Analyse results oI survey 5w
Establish mother & child health program 14w
Establish rural credit programme 15w
Carry out immunization oI under Iives 4w
Draw network diagram and show the critical path.
Calculate proiect duration.
darla/smbs/vit 54
Practice problem
ctivity Description Duration
1-2 Social work team to live in village 5w
1-3 Social research team to do survey 12w
3-4 Analyse results oI survey 5w
2-4 Establish mother & child health program 14w
3-5 Establish rural credit programme 15w
4-5 Carry out immunization oI under Iives 4w
3
1
2
4
5
darla/smbs/vit 55
sivaprasaddarlamvit.ac.in

!#%

$;,!7,8,/,7, $70.9:707 $.44410.,3., :/3$.03.08

,90,.98,5740.9
!  23.,704190.43897:.94341,709,/0;0452039390 .0397041,,70943 %070,70709,:398,3/,8:5072,7093 90.4250 2,37085438-908,7094.4
47/3,90904741 90;,74:8.4397,.947894038:709,9905740.98.425090/94 850.1.,943 93-:/09,3/43920 ! ,2/70.93,90,2417080,7.8.039898 0,707:333 97,843,30,3,08./7:43-0,141,5,72,.0:9.,.425,3  9827085438-994/08390050720398,3/2,08:709,9 5745078.0391.,3/0,574.0/:708,701440/ 849,94:7708:98 .,3-08:-0.90/943/0503/03989,989.,,3,88 !
%039073,943,,/,03..02548208803/32094 009447,30903974/:.943412:920/,7084:7.08,9, 90,.078 97,33.400 74086:90.4250 ,;0942,08:70 9,9,557457,907084:7.08,705:7.,80/
,3/38420.,808/0;0450/ 9390.400 ,84,;09403.4:7,090,..059,3.0419080 /,7,

82-8

;9  7084:7.08-0.9:7078,3/89:/03989390.400

 90./..3/.400 ../7:43-0...947894038:709.0452039390 .3.94341..3  9827085438-994/08390050720398.943412:920/.3.7094.98349/0130/-90950414:9.9 5745078..0 /.943.8:5072.98.090.907084:7.08:709.3/89:/03989390.90.943 93-:/09...059.90/943/0503/03989.0942.3.3/0.08.74:8.7..7093 90...9.701440/ 849.707:333 97.709.989.70709.705:7.3-08:-0./0.4250 2..3/43920 ! .9.0397041.80/ .09403.843.2417080.4250 .0391.0:9.574..0419080 7084:7.3/2.039898 0.08:70 9.:398.400 74086:90.4:7.425090/94 850..557457.08-0..90904741 90.!  23.400 !740.808/0.078 97..42098809:594.43897:.0.84.3/38420.94:7708:98 .0450/ 9390.425.2/70.9905740.8.08..4397..70943 %070.141....9:7078.7.0/:708.704190.7084:7..4 47/3.02548208803/32094 009447.88 ! %039073.33.30.37085438-908.72.5.08.93.30903974/:.1.03.

82-8.

9  ..

425094341.947011479 #06:70890..3/.4507.4330.08 8:..489 .3/.9.0850.8920..30417084:7.3/6:.902547.9.420.08 .3.7.4-0..3/:36:04:9..0. 850.8/0830/94.98..943.9.0.43897.1.!740.7.908 89.90/..90789.9.398.703:2-0741390770...041 ..41.4:73..3/.5740.0 #084:7.-80/94.1.908.30 .4.9 5740.9 :36:0 430 9204507.3/..90/806:03.0.90893920 .703/0.0.9.841903:80/943974/:..

.9:70 00/0.472430 .70290/ %5.02039897:.3../0785  /.898432.7.

82-8.

9  ..

/:2847.079 1449-.0453.89..333.70.983942.198  30858 .934550308 /0.045329.7.909.7.208 47-.43..20398 3974/:. 94:73.703.94708 845532.8  .709 /.934:808 1.5438889028 .43897:.809-.:3.43897:..425:907 889028 5.9090889028 .38.2508 .330574/:.8 /0.3/2502039330.7.

82-8.

.9  .

43897.36:08414507.4258203941.7 .3/6:.7/890 .889024170.07807084:7.9.:36:0 .7080.02039 W %0.:947908:80/9090.90/.398 W 9847380347/.4250 4309209.890:804130947894 705708039...08 W 3041908090.7 039029.943419448.0894.3.36:08 94/70.990:8041/.8 93920 .9.489.7.985740.908 /.40. 945..55.3904592:2:80417084:7..92..3/90.7.36:08..94341.943.

82-8.

.9  .

:20399.2897:.90.3 .0841.43974 !740.3.90/708:9 41.!740.3/3 :891..7.799./0:5413/.74:8.088 W W W W W W W !740./08.990./4.75943414-0.98. .9.97 /.3/050.3.70.707085438-0147479028 #085438-98832039.47.9.2 $.70.9 $9.9.943 .3.902039 .792039893.0/:3 !740.3.5740.81742...9574.95.3.943 .425.990.9747.8.5740..:398.70.9.9020394147 79903/08.9 7.39202-07415740.07 248925479.9:709202-07817421:3./:.02039!74.943.943./43$97:.9:70 .9848.943.45089.2 2.3:3/0789..333 !740.8 /0503/34388 706:70/ !740.3//05.

82-8.

.9  848487085438-0147473.9 W W W .5740.

.0/:0/ .9.943415740.489 W 9/013089.3/.9:70..08..3/ 0892.425090/3/0503/03941 49079.47-70.3/.94341. 0020398 .9.95.9:70 W 2094/41-70.9438 W 9.8:702039.3/20.425430398 ..7.3-0:80/94/0399909.425430398 8:-.908.3/43..0450/-01470/0391..439744190 5740.88 3.3/!#% /.88 1.9../43897:.333 W 98/0.07.4.93943/.7.0..3-0.897:.9 W 9814:3/.88390!..5740./:.8832039 417085438-908.943 .9.94341/0503/03..3/ 9..3-08.9/:7.937084:7.889.

82-8.

9  ..

9 /.0883$8902!740.4770./43$97:.9:70147425:907 7/07 !74.7.

82-8.

9  ..

9!.0...!740.-9.333 W #084:7.3/.

7..9.7..08706:70/ 920 94.039.9.908 0.9..08847 8 940.9300/0/ 94.943858 /.425090 0.70.931472..908 892.90390770.90 .706:70/.4250943 3.90907084:7..943 /0391.9 220/.9..08 :/09 W .47298 :0/.90503.90570/0..

82-8.

9  ..

!.3/#0.36:0 !#% /.0%0.399.79 79.9$.3/43974%0.36:08 .2.!740..943.:..9094/ ! !747.0/:3.7.

82-8.

.9  .

71470...547-.041920 !74./85.88.8:.99.5740.7..415740./08.799.9848 5.7.-..79 7.0/:0 /.9.98.9.399.

82-8.

9  ..

894741!.

36:0 !#% &$.  14790! #$28805747.:.9434130 .-89.3903..!#% W 79.943 43 705099.77430947..43897:.89208 .9.3/2.3.9 43 34/030947.9.3/#0.3.39.0%0.943.2 :9509.9 43 ..02.9094/ ! :!439/0024:78 4   147.943 #05099.08:9 /43 09072389.03.9:70414-8 W !740..04-8 # 47 /.7.43897:.9:70 .5.89200892.43897:.!.908 574-.9.9.

82-8.

9  ..

.9./817429.0 3/.333 2.943.90889.920.54393920070430472470.90'% .888900307.7748 7748 3.//70.7.!740..1. 5.079.3-0:80/147905..3.98 W &804134/08.36:08. 90. 3/..20.79.7740.02039.43974415740.3.3/...3/ .3850.90%'% .438:230114799.3/.79419047 4/08  34/087057080390/-.3.98706:70/945071472.0394.90947 W 0947.940.

847.774 W :22.9 9..0/03.90843570.9.7.943858 /..070.425090 #057080390/-.9.3.9 #06:70892094.079.24:394147706:70/3905740.3.47 138 W .9 3/.

82-8.

.392041011479 .9  408349706:70.

9 083.3.908.908:8334/08 .890-03334703/341.3/.9.774884570.9.0 70.9 43 .9 43 34/0   34/08705708039.9.943858.7748 .243..700.7.9.9.90947 W .0/03..7.3/34/08.039 $3...3/..0 34/0 W 0947 $4890806:039.!740.7748705708039.9.908 .774   .908.70.943858 .54393920 #057080390/-.0398147543983 920 /.

82-8.

9  ..

0.3 7/07.3/ 4-9.909471474:80 ..0 /.14:3/.3/4-9.3. !740.3 13.8 :/ 4:80    38 47    0834:80 .909471474:80  .3/70.907.7509    !740.313.39  $00.9 .0. 14:3/.3   $00.79         3847     $00.9 5..3.7509  0834:80.9438 :/4:80   $9.7.3/ 70.0 2.943 :22   7/07.9.

82-8.

95..9 $00.39 2.907.8 .

3/2:89138-01470.3/2:89138-01470.389.389.389...389.9438330947/.79         :22     -49.3/2:89138-01470090741 47.389..79 2:89138-01470.7.79 /...79 -49.$9:.79 -49.7.2   2:89138-01470090747.

82-8.

.9  .

4770. 14:3/.943  .907.943 :22   7/072.0/03.9570.0/03.0 70.43.94385 /.7.   .9. .908 . 3.:77039.4770.94385   7/072.9570.14:3/.0 70.907.

82-8.

.9  .

250 :897.094.09470.884..3/ 98.7..425090985740..9 /.574/:.234770/08341.9434130947.90/5.8841.3.3 %006:089438 44399.9.

82-8.

9  ..

3.908 9..232:2-850.79 9889805994.943858 9.:730.4.1343 220/.49073920 /..47.9..9438583.7.94.7940.9070..9870.

82-8.

.9  .

0/0898 .:77039998 /.9.9..930947 W W W W W 898.9 898.":089438945705.9.9.79.9.9 .9.7.9.944898 .9!70.9.$9.38.9.9843.70.

82-8.

.9  .

943 W !.9080.79.943 W 79.9089.9 /:7.92.7.!.9.9 %0430895.9 920 /09072308905740..7930...9 /.0:590.041.90/806:03.:.9 .039949003/30.5..4330../31742 9089...9..!.908 4190.039 W 79.9.

82-8.

9  ..

9.3.708989.9.3.9.47..88 W .7089$9.9.9089$9..3.3.9089138920  .9.7089920.2:241220/..9.90570/0.7/!.7089138920  0.389.9..7089920.3..9 920 $232:2$41220/.9089920.7994:9/0.3138 0.3-0.79.9920 $ 9 .9.7.799205:8.9920 $ 9 .088478 W .425090/94:9/0..088478 /.79%20 $ 0.389..79 $2.5.9.79.79%20 $ ...3..5.90570/0..9089920.

82-8.

..88 ..9  .7/!.

9 W 3/90...24:39419209.  0 0748.9..7.3.9 14.98902.30947 W 3/905740.88 W 7.. 430895..9.79.9$ $  4.425094341905740.041.9.0398 0709070834 8..5...9.2:2.998.9 425:9090.4250943-014709-0.79..9   0 /0...9438232:25740.9.9/:7.9974:.90!30947 W 3.908.8.9...9.3/0.0905.91470.398.4208..9 814.989.3-0 /0.!.990806:03.98974:9030947 W 09072309014.4250943920 /.

82-8.

9  ..

250 W !0947 1  .!. /  .  0  /.      .7.

82-8.

9      ..

3/%208 1        .250 W $.!.7.   .   /    0  /.  .

82-8.

9  ..

3/%208 .  .   .!.   /    0    /.7.250 W $.

82-8.

.9  1              .

  .7.3/%208 .  .   /    0    /.!.250 W $.

82-8.

9 8  .9 1                     !740..

250 W $.  .   1                     /    0    /.!.3/%208 .   .7.

82-8.

.9        .

7.250 W $.3/%208 1                        /            0    /.!.

82-8.

     .   ..      .9   .

9 1                            /             0       /.7.250 W 4.!.

82-8.

   .9 .      ..       .

 0  /. /  ..250 W 79.!.7.9 1      .!.

82-8.

9  ..      .

943/897-:943 5088289.01938 //40 0.943 459289.0'9 9  /.9 8/:7.9.70706:70/94.425:90905.94:/9.!#% W !#%8-.20907841 .943 1448.920 94  9092090.3.3 050.904190 .908.88:259439.574-.9 8/:7.90/920  90  95 92 94   '..9.9.94:/9.7.7..:0 W %7009200892.3.3.9.01 938//34940 24890920 92  90.830.7./41-03...80/4390..9.438038:8-0890892.9 8/:7.-9/897-:9433890.920 95  9092090.9..

82-8.

.9 95 94   .

707449419.7.88 W 7.79.79. W %089.9.0905..5.98974:9030947.98:2 W !74-.9030947 W 3.3/..9089.9/:7..3.989020.9 W %00394190. /897-:9439.9.//390.084190.7.4190.3/ 9.341905740./0:83903472.908 .425:9.3.-0 /.5.-9/897-:943.-9..943 574-.5.943574-. .!#%.425:90/-.3/13/90.334-02.9/:7.92..88:20/94-03472.7//0.79.9438.94341905740....79.8.9 .-9 /897-:9438.39086:.0:590..

82-8.

.9  .

425:9.943 0907230574-.3/.920.7.10/920 /.3920  5745480/ 850.425090/93850.!74-.3920 9 5740.7/20.-99.95740.-9.10/920  3  9 0703 95 5740.989.98.

82-8.

9  ..

472.9%20 !74-.7.897-:94341!740.-9 9 3 95 /.

82-8.

.9  %20  .

9. %20 7 . %20 7 %20 7                         /.7.9 !70/0.250 220/  59289.!#%.4890!088289.

82-8.

.9    .

7.!#%.250 !#%0947            /.

82-8.

9  ..

90/%20            /.!#%.9.7.9 50.250 .

82-8.

.9 '.7.0 .3.

 .

 .

 .

 .

 .

 .

  .

 .

             .

79.250 ..   .9 $                             $              $.9.!#%..7.                        /.

82-8.

.9 .

9 ' ' ' ' ' .!#%.250 '5.

   .

  .

  95.9       .

9   .

3/.7.-0 !        /.7/472.897-:9439.   74290$9.

82-8.

.9  .

!# % $% .

30974:90702.489.79..9090.890 5740...07 800.70.0904594347706:70203994..3...42580/-70/:.9.0/1:7907 90 574.89.79.9.9433.98900..9 8920 .08887050.9 W 10.9 W %88.9 8 W %00394190.0/ W 19003941905740.. 5.90/ /.982:89-070/:.5..3430.9 2.3.9870/:.9 W !740.098/:7.9....3/07419030947 W 8.3..94335740.4190..943-430:3941920 903905740.9300/894-070/:.9706:708900503/9:7041.79.79...089.79.3/97.438/07.3900394190..0/-70/:.70/:.007.9.79..425094341905740.-0.9 0.9084390.24:3941243094 70/:..390/:7.089-430920:39  .30.92.9 47.943 4190.0782.5.92.7..5..79.489.7.5..5.90/ W 039070824709.708:941.9 70/:.9.3..

82-8.

9  ..

489 /... 70/:.//943.3.9/:7.8920 .489 .0/ W 7.!740.9920 W 4.05740.08 W 7.97.83 W 7.3.7084:7.9.3.9870/:.9.7.9232:2.4894170/:.35740.8.24:3941920.9920-0503/3.943.83 70/:.

82-8.

.9  .

8..9 472.9 $450.. 920 7.9.83.83 7.9.7.9.9.8 .9920 /.8 920 .7..489 7.489507:39920 472.7.9.

82-8.

9  472. ..489 .

70.5740.70.83.489 4592.%20 489#0.94385 7.843.83.489 70.808 3/70.85740.7.808 #0/:.9.943/0.9039.80.3 3/70.489 3/70.80.9 .70..9.9.700889.9/:7.4898 %20 489%7./0411 3949.489 /.70.48983.9.8.4898.7.5740.48983.9433.9/:7.05740.9 920 %49.85740.

82-8.

9 920  ..

250               /.830.!740.7.97.

82-8.

.9  .

9 472.8 7.7.8 4. 472.8920                                       /. 7.%20489/. .489#8 920 .7.9.9.-0 8450 920 .489#8 .

82-8.

9                ..

9   # /:7.943 #     # #   742 #   #   # #   #     #  %4 !740.9/:7.7.#     #   !740.943 //943..489 #   # /.

82-8.

.9   # .

03019841!.

943 &801:32439473.8250 .92..3.0.4898 !.920 !74.92.02039 .!#% W W W W W &801:.9.3/8.5.902.9/4.389.79.08415740./05740..9.:2039..

330/ ..0/ W.425090/43920 W8905740..0/:047.9.9900.90039705740..9.908479.7090 7883.0/:0 W1905740.380790144325479.4.425090/.35.883905740.99.9..9438.0.79./418.094-0.9890-089 .7079.94/498.89.489/.9190070349.894-01380/0.9.7090.7..4:/ /0.0/:0 -03/8..39 6:089438 W44390039705740.!#%.3.

82-8.

.9  .

29.943894!.

.-0..-09.07025.. W W W W W W %44.43889039:3/070892.905.07.7.98 09072389.-.90890050.8 /.070.943 4390.3-0 50714720/43903094794023.9.5.943858 ./897-:94314790809200892.3//0503/43:/2039 !#%.908 -:9 90.9./897-:9432.9073.9090459289.9438.7482:.8843.7/0130/ 3/0503/039.-0/1107039 W !#%.908.99200892.!#% 0.3/89.9:.4209029.908 $50.79.9.9 .79.4250943920/:094.90/5740.10/570.98-0.0/03.423.708:-0..!24/0 ..0.88:208.

82-8.

.9  .

07.9!. !72..3307 !72.9.9 .9 $%0.7.425:907$419.3.78475 !407!740.748419!740.748419475 .70 147!740.947-03.04520393.947475 !740.02039 W W W W W W .!740.!740. %475 /..07. !740.9 ..0/:07 $.9$.

82-8.

.9  .

0 3.9...9..99901443 .908.9  .9/:7.75943 $4.0 89..-87:7.92.908 ..943       7.:.4790..!7.94341:3/071.250 84.-824907 .7.5740.220 .0781.80708:98418:7.79.294/48:7.5740.70/95747.905740.7.7.0..0 $4.774:922:3.294.7080..2.943 /.3/8490.90.0/9..95747./0.08 :7.9.5..03.30947/.3.2 89.

82-8.

.9  .

9..4790.80708:98418:7.-87:7.9.294/48:7.220 ..03.-824907 .70/95747.7080..9 08.774:922:3.0 89.294.75943   $4.7.94341:3/071.90.0           $4./0..95747.08    /.2 89.!7.0574-02 ..7.0 3.

82-8.

9  :7.943         ..

//..7. 3 /.9 .8..7.57..8.

82-8.

9  ..

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful