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Interface Design

Omid Fatemi

University of Tehran 1

Typical Interface Design





Sense Reality Touch Reality Connect Transform

Embedded Systems Micros Assembler, C Real-Time Memory Peripherals Timers DMA

PC interfaces HCI

Busses Protocols Standards PCI IEEE488 SCSI USB & FireWire CAN
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Sensors : Review
‡ voltage source
± directly measured

‡ variable resistance
± can be converted to a voltage and measured ± voltage divider for coarser measurements ± wheatstone bridge for finer measurements

‡ variable capacitance ‡ variable inductance ‡ variable signal
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Touch Reality
³adding to the real world´

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Motors ‡ coils of conductive wire ‡ magnetic fields ‡ rotational motion ± except for linear induction motor ‡ everywhere from the very large (LRT) to the very small (toys) ‡ electrical energy converted to mechanical University of Tehran 5 .

Stepper Motors ‡ more accurately controlled than a normal motor allowing fractional turns or n revolutions to be easily done ‡ low speed. and lower torque than a comparable D.C. motor ‡ useful for precise positioning for robotics ‡ Servomotors require a position feedback signal for control University of Tehran 6 .

Stepper Motor Diagram University of Tehran 7 .

Stepper Motor Types ± Variable Reluctance ± Unipolar/Bipolar Permanent Magnet University of Tehran 8 .

Variable Reluctance Motors University of Tehran 9 .

Variable Reluctance Motors ‡ This is usually a four wire motor ± the common wire goes to the +ve supply and the windings are stepped through ‡ Our example is a 30o motor ‡ The rotor has 4 poles and the stator has 6 poles ‡ Example University of Tehran 10 .

0010010010010010010010010 ‡ This gives two full revolutions University of Tehran 11 .1001001001001001001001001 W2 .Variable Reluctance Motors ‡ To rotate we excite the 3 windings in sequence W1 .0100100100100100100100100 W3 .

Unipolar Motors University of Tehran 12 .

Four Phase Stepper Motor University of Tehran 13 .

Unipolar Motors ‡ This is usually a 5 or 6 wire motor ± with a centre tap on each of the two windings ± the two taps are typically wired to the +ve ‡ Our example is a 30o motor ‡ The rotor has 6 poles and the stator has 4 poles ‡ Example University of Tehran 14 .

Unipolar Motors ‡ To rotate we excite the 2 windings in sequence W1a .1000100010001000100010001 W1b .0010001000100010001000100 W2a .0100010001000100010001000 W2b .0001000100010001000100010 ‡ This gives two full revolutions University of Tehran 15 .

Basic Actuation Wave Forms University of Tehran 16 .

0110011001100110011001100 W2b .4 times greater torque but twice the power University of Tehran 17 .1100110011001100110011001 W1b .1001100110011001100110011 ‡ This gives two full revolutions at 1.Unipolar Motors ‡ To rotate we excite the 2 windings in sequence W1a .0011001100110011001100110 W2a .

Enhanced Waveforms ‡ better torque ‡ more precise control University of Tehran 18 .

so by combining the two you can produce half stepping W1a .Unipolar Motors ‡ The two sequences are not the same.00011100000111000001110000 W2a .01110000011100000111000001 W2b .00000111000001110000011100 University of Tehran 19 .11000001110000011100000111 W1b .

Speed University of Tehran 20 .Torque vs.

Motor Control Circuits ‡ Fundamentally a circuit as below is required University of Tehran 21 .

University of Tehran 22 .Motor Control Circuits ‡ We must deal with the inductive kick when the switches are turned off. We can shunt this using diodes.

The 5v control should be well regulated. The motor power will not require regulation. University of Tehran 23 .Motor Control Circuits ‡ In order to interface the stepper motor with a P (or similar) we need a TTL compatible circuit.

Motor Control Circuits ‡ For low current options the ULN200x family of Darlington Arrays will drive the windings direct. University of Tehran 24 .

Interfacing to Stepper Motors University of Tehran 25 .

8255 PPI University of Tehran 26 .

Stepper Motor Step Angles University of Tehran 27 .

RPM ± SPS = (RPM * SPR) /60 ‡ Number of teeth ‡ 4-step. wave drive 4-step. 8-step ‡ Motor speed (SPS) ‡ Holding torque University of Tehran 28 .Terminology ‡ Steps per second.

Vector Generation ‡ Hardware solutions ± Logic design ± State machine ‡ Software solutions ± Microprocessor and output ports ± timing University of Tehran 29 .

Example University of Tehran 30 .

pin ball machines ‡ electrical to mechanical motion interface ‡ small linear motion University of Tehran 31 . door bell strikers.Solenoids and Coils ‡ coils of conductive wire ‡ magnetic field pushes or pulls ‡ used in speaker coils.

repetitive distribution of molecules and charge ‡ a small amount of uneven force on the material will produce a charge imbalance in the matrix and create a voltage potential which can be measured and used as a sensor ‡ conversly. locked. a voltage potential can be applied across it and it will cause the crystal to deform ± small speakers.Piezoelectric ‡ crystalline structure. beepers University of Tehran 32 .

it can absorb heat or cool » electric coolers for cars University of Tehran 33 . seat warmers ‡ electricity through a thermocouple can generate heat ± if applied in reverse.Heaters. Coolers ‡ electricity through wire generates heat because the conductance is not infinite ‡ power = V*V/R ± hair dryers. pipe heaters.

The most suitable actuation mode has proved to be the linear contraction of a straight wire actuator. The alloy generates a high force during the phase transformation. e. It has to be deformed in its low temperature phase Martensite and subsequently heated to the high temperature phase Austenite.Thermal Shape Memory Effect A shape memory alloy is capable of remembering a previously memorized shape. in hot water or with an electrical current. Thus. The shape change is not restricted to just pure bending. University of Tehran 34 . In contradiction to the mechanical shape memory effect. with which the Memory-Metal is capable of delivering a high amount of work output per material volume. it can be used as an actuator in a multitude of different applications. the thermal shape memory effect is related to a heat stimulus.g.

This deformation can be as high as 20x of the elastic strain of steel. Reason for the superelasticity is the stress induced phase transformation from the high temperature phase Austenite into the low temperature phase Martensite.Mechanical Shape Memory Effect: Superelasticity Shape memory alloys are able to show an obviously elastic deformation behaviour which is called Mechanical Shape Memory Effect or Superelasticity. University of Tehran 35 . Temperature changes are not necessary for the superelasticity. The strain related to this phase transformation is fully reversible after removing the stress. The commercial NiTinol alloys show as much as 8% of superelastic strain.

the risk of breakage of a component made from martensitic NiTinol is significantly lower as for instance in stainless steel. Thus. The metallurgical reason for the martensite deformability is the twinned structure of the low temperature phase: the twin boundaries can be moved without much force and without formation of dislocations. the alloy recovers its initial shape. And finally when heated into the austenitic phase. which can be considered as being the initiator of fracture University of Tehran 36 .Martensite Deformability The martensitic low temperature phase can be deformed similar to pure Tin: it can be bent back and forth without strain hardening.

austenite (heated state) ‡ can generate enough force to move thousands of times its own weight University of Tehran 37 . nitinol. flexinol ‡ nickle/titanium alloy ‡ metal crystalline structure undergoes shape change with a change in temperature ‡ two stable states: martensite (cooled state).Shape Memory Alloy ‡ also known as: muscle wire.

easily interfaced to a microcontroller ‡ wire length shrinks by up to 8% but typically 5% is used ‡ wire can snap from overheating caused by excessive current or by over stressing it University of Tehran 38 .SMA continued ‡ silent linear movement has life like quality ± no motors required for robotic limbs ‡ low voltage.

Making SMA University of Tehran 39 .

SMA Cycle University of Tehran 40 .

Bias Forces University of Tehran 41 .

Wire Length vs Temperature University of Tehran 42 .

Photons ‡ electricity can be turned into light directly (LEDs) or indirectly through heat ± LEDs can be combined to create a multisegment display for alphanumerics ± all colors available now ± coherent light beams can be made from laser diodes ‡ vacuum tubes still most common form of display for TV and computers University of Tehran 43 .