Submitted by:Akanksha Gaikwad (7) Anchal Dawar (12) Disha Dave (34


y A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source. y When a LED is forward biased, electrons are able to recombine

with holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor.
y The first practical visible-spectrum (red) LED was developed in

1962 by Nick Holonyak Jr.
y Light-emitting diodes are made up of using semiconductors such

as Gallium Arsenide, Gallium Phosphide, and Gallium Nitride

y The flat side also indicates which leg is negative.SYMBOL: y The longer leg of the diode represents the positive terminal while the shorter leg shows the negative terminal. .

y A semiconductor wafer is made. These layers are called Epitaxial Layers and the process is LIQUID PHASE EPITAXY. To keep them from escaping into the pressurized gas in the chamber. .CONSTRUCTION y The LED consists of a chip of semiconducting material doped with impurities to create a p-n junction. they are often covered with a layer of liquid boron oxide. y Additional layers of semiconductor crystals are grown on the surface of wafers. This is known as LIQUID ENCAPSULATION.

. y EPOXY CASTING: The lead frame is placed in a mould and optical-grade epoxy resin is poured and oven cured.y WIRE BONDING: Welding of a tiny wire from the top surface of the die to the post.

. y Electro part tells us that an electric field or current provides the excitation.MECHANISM BEHIND PHOTON EMISSION y Mechanism is injection electroluminescence . y Luminescence is defined as the emission of optical radiation as a result of a material being subjected to electronic excitation.

y The holes exist at a lower energy level than the free electrons. Therefore when a free electrons falls it losses energy .WORKING y When current flows across a diode negative electrons move one way and positive holes move the other way.

y This energy is emitted in a form of a photon. which causes light y The color of the light is determined by the fall of the electron and hence energy level of the photon .

. y In indirect bandgap materials conduction-band electrons have to change their momentum to drop to the valence band.DIRECT AND INDIRECT BANDGAP y In order to achieve a reasonable efficiency for photon emission. It doesn t make light emission impossible. but it does make it very difficult because the radiative lifetime is of the order of milliseconds. y In such case electron and hole can recombine with no change in momentum and a photon or light wave can be emitted. the semiconductor must have a direct band gap.

Conventional LEDs are made of inorganic minerals such as: MATERIAL aluminium gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) gallium arsenide/phosphide (GaAsP) gallium nitride (GaN) gallium phosphide (GaP) zinc selenide (ZnSe) indium gallium nitride (InGaN) silicon carbide (SiC) diamond (C) COLOUR red and infrared red. orange and yellow green green blue blue blue ultraviolet .

y For example OLEDs contain substances which are the combination of carbon and hydrogen like wood. a bright and electro-luminescent light is produced directly from the organic material. y It comprises of an organic material that can emit photons and therefore light when electrons are conducted through them. y OLED consists of a layer of organic material that is sandwiched between two conductors (called anode and cathode).OLED y OLED stands for organic light emitting diode. . sugar and lots of plastics. y When electric Current is passed into the two conductors.


wearable. head-mounted computers. personal digital assistants. automotive. digital cameras. . and mobile phones as well as medical. smart pagers.y OLEDs have been proposed for a wide range of display applications including magnified micro displays. and other industrial applications. virtual reality games.

LATEST LED TECHNOLOGIES y LED bulbs y In street lights y LED display y In automobiles y In traffic lights y Photosensor applications y In medical science .


and that s about 25.000 working hours. y LED bulbs will last more than 25 times longer than average bulb. y They are about ten times more energy efficient than incandescent bulbs. .LED BULBS y LED bulb should be a 40-watt replacement and it should consume just 9 watts and save 77 percent energy.

.LEDs ARE THE FUTURE OF HOME LIGHTING. y Longer lifespan y Low maintenance y Eco-friendly DRAWBACK:y Too costly to be used by a common man. BUT the prices will inevitably fall. because the writing on the wall is clear.ADVANTAGES:y Robust and shock resistant because of its light weight and no brittle parts.

It uses a treatment device which is a 3-by5-inch portable. grow 150 to 200 times faster than cells not stimulated by such light. y Many times young bone-marrow transplant recipients contract this condition.LEDs In Medical Science y Biologists have found that cells exposed to near-infrared light from LEDs. severe pain. flat array of light-emitting diodes. . which produces ulcerations in the mouth and throat.

.LEDs as Treatment Device y It was held on the outside of a patient's left cheek for just over a minute each day. y The process was repeated over the patient's right cheek. to provide a sham treatment for comparison. but with foil placed between the LED array and the patient.

LED TV y LED television's display is actually LCD (Liquid Crystal Display). y On a typical LCD TV. it is the backlight only that is made up of LEDs. fluorescent tubes are replaced with light-emitting diodes LEDs y LED TVs have an efficiency improvement of up to 30 percent over fluorescent-based sets. . y On an LED-backlit TV. cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFL) provide the backlighting through a special plastic sheet called a light guide that distributes light from a fluorescent tube evenly over the surface of the TV.

followed by the LCD and the plasma. the plasma TV is the winner again. On the LIFESPAN PARAMETER the LCD TV and plasma have similar lifespan. The LED TV comes next in the race and the LCD TV comes last. LCD AND LED TV y On the CONTRAST RATIO parameter. On the PRICE parameter plasma is number 1 at the moment. but faces fierce competition from the LCD in the future. . as its a relatively new technology. followed by the LED TV in second place and the LCD TV in the last place. the plasma TV clearly has the y y y y upper hand.DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PLASMA. On the POWER CONSUMPTION parameter the LED TV is the winner. On the VIEWING ANGLE parameter. while that of the LED TV remains untested. LED is still very far behind in the pricing race.

infrared transmission and ultraviolet energy. Example:  Medical Instrumentation  Bar Code Readers  Color & Money Sensors  Encoders .Photo Sensor Applications Of LEDs y A Photosensor is an electronic component that detects the presence of visible light. y It is a combination of a LED with a photo detector such as a diode or transistor.


y LEDs offer enormous benefits over traditional incandescent lamps including:  Energy savings (up to 85% less power than incandescent  Reduction in maintenance costs. . LEDs lifespan averages 7-10 years  Increased visibility in daylight and adverse weather conditions.Signal Applications With LEDs y Almost every major city in North America and abroad is using LEDs in traffic signal applications.

make lights that mimic the colour of sunshine. and keep private data immune from hackers. New generation LED will purify water.SOME FACTS ABOUT LEDs AND OLEDs y The near-infrared light emitted by LEDs seems to be perfect for y y y y increasing energy inside cells. The technology is very new and expensive. In the near future LED TVs will be as thin as a credit card and will go on a wall like wall paper. . The newspaper of the future might be an OLED display that refreshes with breaking news and like a regular newspaper. you could fold it up when you're done reading it and stick it in your backpack or briefcase. Glowing red light emitted by LEDs has been used to grow plants on NASA's Space Shuttle.

However. due to LED lighting being highly energy efficient.CONCLUSION LED lighting has been in existence for many years. not to mention technologically superior over other light sources numerous applications are sure to evolve further. .


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