There are two types oI views used in the piping drawings

a) Orthographic- Plans and Elevations
b) Pictorial - Isometric Views
Piping layout is developed in both plan view and elevation view
and section details are added Ior clarity wherever necessary.
These drawings are called the General Arrangement oI Piping.
In complex piping system, especially within the unit/plant building
where orthographic views do not illustrate the details oI design,
pictorial view in isometric presentation is drawn Ior clarity.
The Indian Standard IS10711 standardises the
drawing sheets as below:
- 841 x 1189
- 594 x 841
- 420 x 594
- 297 x 420
- 210 x 297
WObtain the drawings numbers and Iill in the title block,
with the drawing number and title at the bottom right hand
corner oI the sheet.
WPlace the north arrow at the top leIt/right hand corner oI
the sheet to indicate plant north.
Wo not plan drawing in the area above the title block oI
drawing, as this is allotted Ior general notes, number and
title oI reIerence drawings, brieI description oI changes
during revision and the bill oI materials wherever
WProcess equipment and piping have priority on the Piping
WThe piping drawings are started aIter Iixing positions oI
the equipments.
WEquipment layout is reproduced on the Piping GA to its
scale and drawn on the reverse side in case oI manual
WIn case oI CA separate layer is used. The maior primary
beams and secondary beams are also shown iI area covered is
WPertinent background details which govern piping routing,
such as Iloor drains, HVAC ducting, electrical and instrument
cable trays, etc. are also drawn in Iaint on the reverse.
W&tility stations are also established so that most convenient
utility header routing can be carried out.
Order of importance/preference of pipe lines in a piping
1. Alloy steel/special material oI construction.
2. Large bore piping
3. High temp/high pr. Piping
4. Lined piping
5. C. S. Process Piping
6. &tility piping
W The piping drawings should be developed in such a way that
all the process requirements are met with.
W It is not always possible Ior the piping drawing to Iollow
exactly the logical arrangement oI the P & Is. Sometimes
lines must be routed with diIIerent iunction sequence and
line numbers and subsequently the list may be changed.
WPerIormance and economics have to be considered in
parallel while deciding the routing.
W Piping is represented by single lines up to a size oI 150NB
and double lines Ior sizes 200NB and above. This is to save
the time oI draIting and to avoid conIusion.
W In single line representation only the center line oI the
pipeline is drawn using solid line and in double line
representation the actual size to scale is drawn with center
line marked in chain-dotted lines
W Line numbers are shown against each line exactly in the
same way as represented in the P&I diagrams.
W The change in speciIication should be shown in line with
P&I diagram. This change is usually indicated
immediately to the downstream oI the valve, Ilange or
W Valves should be drawn to scale with identiIication
number Irom the P&I marked thereon.
W raw valve hand wheels to scale with stem Iully
II it is lever operated, then the movement oI handle
position should be marked.
W II a valve is chain operated, note the distance oI the chain
Irom the operating Iloor.
W Show location oI each instrument connection with
encircled instrument number taken Irom P&I.
W Similar arrangement shall be shown as typical detail or
covered in a separate company standard as Instrument
Hook-up drawings.
W raw plan view oI each Iloor oI the plant and these views
should indicate how the layout will look like between
Iloors as seen Irom top.
W Each line should be identiIied by line number and should
also show the insulation, tracing requirements, etc.
W Lines, iI required, shall be broken to show the required
details oI hidden lines without drawing other views.
W o not draw details that can be covered by a note.
W raw plan to a larger scale Ior any part needing more
details and identiIy it as 'etail A`¨, etc.
W raw part isometrics sketches or part elevations to clariIy
complex piping or piping hidden in the plan view.
Wull sections through the plant may be avoided iI isometric
drawings are drawn Ior the lines. Part sections where
required shall be shown to clear the hidden details in plan.
W Sections in the plan views are identiIied by numbers say
1-1, 2-2, etc. and details by alphabets, e.g. 'etail A`¨.
W Isometric drawing should also include the Iollowing
W imensions and angles.
W #eIerence number oI P & Is, GA rawings, line
numbers, direction oI Ilow, insulation and tracing.
W Equipment location and equipment identiIication.
W Give nozzle identiIication on the connected equipment.
W Give the details oI Ilange on the equipment iI the
speciIication is diIIerent Irom the connecting piping.
W Size and type oI every valve/ irection oI operation.
W Size and number oI control valve.
W Location, orientation and number oI each equipment.
W Plant North - The direction should be so selected as to
Iacilitate easy checking oI GA with Iso
W ield weld - preIerred in all directions to take care oI site
variations. Can also be covered with a general note.
W Location oI high point vents and low point drains.
Covered with a standard arrangement note.
W Bill oI Material.
W #equirements oI stress relieving, seal welding, pickling,
coating, etc.
A spool is an assembly oI Iittings, Ilanges and pipes that
may be preIabricated. It does not include bolts, gaskets,
valves or instruments. A spool sheet is an orthographic
drawing oI a spool drawn either Irom piping GAor Irom an
iso sheet. Each spool sheet shows only one type oI spool
WInstructs welder to Iabricate the spool
WLists the cut lengths oI pipe, Iittings and Ilanges etc.
needed to make the spool
WGives material oI construction and any special treatment
oI Iinished piping
WIndicates how many spools oI the same type are required
W SuIIicient dimensions to be given Ior positioning
equipment and Ior erecting piping.
W uplicating dimensions in diIIerent views should be
avoided, as this may lead to errors iI changes are made.
W #eserve horizontal dimensions Ior the plan view.
W II single pipe is to be positioned or a pipe connected to
nozzle is to be indicated, then show the centre line
elevation and mark as C .
W II several pipes are sharing a common support, show
elevation oI Bottom oI Pipes and mark as BOP EL. This
is more applicable to non-insulated lines.
W In case oI several pipes on a pipe rack, show the
'Top oI Support¨ elevation and mark as TOS EL.
W In case oI buried pipelines in trench, show
elevation oI bottom oI pipes.
W In case oI drains and sewers, the Invert Elevation
oI the inside oI the pipe is marked as IE.
W Centre lines oI the equipment and pipelines shall be
located with reIerence to the building column centre lines or
the co-ordinates which can be considered as a reIerence base.
W The distance between the lines shall be dimensioned centre
line to centre line.
WThe horizontal nozzles on the equipment shall be located
Irom centre to Ilange Iace in plan. or vertical nozzles show
ace oI lange elevation (O).
W or valves, instruments and non-standard equipments, show
the dimensions Irom Ilange Iace to Ilange Iace.
W langed valves are located with dimension to Ilange Iaces. Non-
Ilanged valves are dimensioned to their centres or stems.
W or Ilanged ioints show a small gap between dimension lines to
indicate gasket. langed ioints can also be shown without
gasket but
cover the same with a general note and include gasket thickness
in the valve or equipment dimensions.
W or inished loor () the elevation shall be the high point oI
W the Iloor.
W or Ioundation the Top oI Grout (TOG) elevation is shown.
W Show dimensions outside the drawn view - do not cut
W raw dimension line unbroken with Iine line. Write
dimension iust above the horizontal line. or vertical lines
write sideways.
W The dimension lines can be terminated with arrow heads or
oblique dashes.
W II series oI dimension is to be shown, string them together.
W Show overall dimension oI the string oI dimensions. Avoid
one oI the break-up dimensions to omit repetition and error
during changes.
W o not omit signiIicant dimension other than Iitting make
W or Iield run piping, give only those dimensions which are
necessary to route piping clear oI equipments and other
obstructions. Locate only those items which are important to
the process.
W &nderline out oI scale dimensions or mark as NTS.
W o not terminate dimensions at screwed or welded ioints.
Checking shall be done only on the print or the check
plot oI the drawings and by coloured pencils/pens.
A. Corrected areas and dimensions are marked yellow.
B. Areas and dimensions which are to be deleted are
marked green.
C. Areas to be corrected/incorporated on the drawing
are marked in red.
The new print aIter correction is 'back checked¨ Ior
Points to be checked on the piping drawing includes:
Title oI the drawing.
W Title of the drawing.
W Orientation - North arrow against plot plan.
W Inclusion of graphic scale (if drawings is to be reduced).
W Co-ordinates of equipments against equipment layout.
W Equipment numbers and their appearance on the piping
W Correct identification on all lines in all views.
W Line specification changes.
W Reference drawing numbers and files.
W Correctness of all dimensions.
W Whether representation is correctly made in line with
the standard symbols or not.
W Location and identification of all instruments.
Requirements of upstream/downstream straight lengths.
W Insulation requirements as per P&IDs.
W Piping arrangement against P&ID requirements such as
gravity flow. seals. etc.
W Possible interference
W Floor and wall openings.
W Correctness oI scale in case oI General Arrangement
W Whether all stress analysis requirements are met or not
W Adequacy oI clearance Irom civil structures, electrical
apparatus and instrument consoles.
W Accessibility oI operation and maintenance space and
provision oI drop out and handling areas.
W oundation drawings and vendor equipment requirements
W etails and section identiIication match.
W 'Matchline¨ provision and accuracy.
W Presence oI signatures and dates.
W Accuracy oI BOM in Isometrics.
W Number oI issues and revision.

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