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WELDING PROCESSES

Presented by
Parveen Kumar{05110}
INTRODUCTION
ØAs we all know that whatever the product
that is impossible to manufacture as a
single piece.
ØWelding is a process which is used to join
the two parts to get a desired product.
ØWelding is a joining process. The types of
welding processes are:-
cont……….
Diversity of welding processes
welding

Solid state welding Fusion welding Soldering and brazing

Resistance Soldering
welding
Brazing
Cold welding
Friction welding Electrical energy Chemical energy
Diffusion welding
Oxyacetylene welding
Flash welding
Oxyfuel gas welding
Ultrasonic welding
Explosion welding Consumable electrode Non consumable Other processes
electrode
Gas metal arc welding Laser beam welding
Shielded metal arc welding Gas tungsten arc welding Thermit welding
Submerged arc welding Atomic hydrogen welding Electron beam welding
Flux cored arc welding Plasma arc welding

Electrogas welding
Electroslag welding
FUSION WELDING
ØIt is defined as the melting of two
material parts by attaching together by
means of heat
ØHeat may be supplied by chemical or
electrical means.
ØIn this filler metal may or may not be
use .
FUSION WELDING
COMPRISES:-
ØOxyfuel gas welding
ØArc welding processes
4. Consumable electrode
5. Nonconsumable electrode
Ø Thermit welding
Ø Electron beam welding
Ø Laser beam welding
● OXYFUEL GAS WELDING
ØOxyfuel gas welding is the welding
process that use a fuel gas combined
with oxygen to produce a flame.
ØThis frame is the source of the heat
that is used to melt the metal at the
point of joint.
ØThe most common gas welding process
which is oxyacetylene welding and is
used for automotive bodies, and various
other repair works.
Ø In this process, heat is generated in
two steps:-
2. Primary combustion process:-
In this process, acetylene reacts with O2
and give CO and H2 and it produces
1:3 of the total heat generated in the
flame.
2. Secondary combustion process:-
It consist of further burning of H2 and
CO with O2 and this reaction
produces about 2:3 of the total heat.
The temp. developed in the flame is
Types of flame:-
2. When there is no excess oxygen, then it is
known as neutral flame.
3. If the oxygen is notin large amount, then it
is known as oxidizing flame.
• This is harmful for steel, because it oxidizes
the steel.
• It is used only for Cu and Cu alloys because
in those cases, a thin protective layer of
slag forms over the molten metal.
3. If the ratio of O2 is deficient, then the flame
becomes reducing flame.
The temp. of reducing flame is lower, so it is
suitable for applications requiring low temp.
OXYACETYLENE FLAMES USED IN
WELDING
OXYACETYLENE TORCH AND SETUP
FILLER METALS
•Filler metals are used to supply additional
material to the weld zone during welding.
•They are available as rod or wire made of
metals compatible with those to be
welded.
•These consumable filler rods may be
coated with flux .
•The function of the flux is to retard
oxidation of the surface of the parts being
welded by generating a gaseous shield
ARC WELDING
• Arc welding processes use a welding
power supply to create and maintain
an electric arc between an
electrode and the base material to
melt metals at the welding point.
• They can use either direct (DC) or
alternating (AC) current, and
consumable or non-consumable
electrodes.
• The welding region is sometimes
protected by some type of inert or
semi-inert gas, known as a shielding
gas, and filler material is sometimes
used as well.
Types of arc welding:-
1.Shielded metal arc welding:-
ØShielded metal arc welding is one of the
oldest, simplest and most versatile
welding process.
ØThe electric arc is generated by touching
the tip of a coated electrode against the
work piece and then withdrawing it quickly
to a distance sufficient to maintain the arc.
ØThe electrode arc in the shape of thin,
long stick, so this process is also known as
stick welding.
ØAbare section at the end of the
electrode is clamped to one terminal of
the power source , while the other
terminal is connected to the work piece
being welded.
ØThe current usually ranges from 50A to
300A,power requirements are generally
less then 10KW.
ØThe current may be dc or ac . For sheet
metal welding dc is preferred because
of the steady arc it produces .
Cont……
ØThe polarity of the dc current is
important and its selections is depend
upon the metal to be welded , types of
electrode and the depth of the heated
zone.
ØIn straight polarity , the work piece is
positive and electrode is negative.
ØIt is preferred for sheet metals ,
because it produces shallow penetration
, and for joints with very wide gaps.
ØIn reverse polarity , the electrode is
positive and deeper weld penetration is
possible
SHIELDED METAL ARC
WELDING
SMAW SYSTEM SETUP
• Advantages - The process is very versatile, requiring
little operator training and inexpensive equipment.
• Disadvantages – 1. the process is generally limited to
welding ferrous materials, though speciality
electrodes have made possible the welding of cast
iron, nickel, aluminium, copper, and other metals.

APPLICATIONS -- SMAW is often used to weld


carbon steel, low and high alloy steel, stainless steel,
cast iron, and ductile iron.
> While less popular for nonferrous materials, it can
be used on nickel and copper and their alloys and, in
rare cases, on aluminum.
> The thickness of the material being welded is
bounded on the low end primarily by the skill of the
welder, but rarely does it drop below 0.05 in
(1.5 mm). No upper bound exists: with proper joint
preparation materials of virtually greater thickness
SUBMERGED ARC
WELDING
ØIn this process, the weld arc is shielded by a
granular flux, consisting of lime, silica, MnO2,
CaF2,and other compounds.
ØThe thick layer of the flux completely covers
the molten metal.
ØThe flux also acts as a thermal insulator,
promoting deep penetration of heat into the
work piece.
ØThe consumable electrode is a coil of bare
round wire {1.5-10}mm dia.
ØElectrical current ranges from 300-2000a and
GAS METAL ARC WELDING
ØThis process is also known as MIG
welding.
ØIn this process, the weld area is shielded
by an inert atmosphere of Ar, He, CO2 or
various other gas mixtures.
ØThe consumable bare wire is fed
automatically through a nozzle into the
weld arc.
ØDeoxidizers are usually present in the
metal itself, in order to prevent oxidation of
the molten weld puddle.
ØIn spray transfer , small droplets of
molten metal from the electrode are
transferred to the weld area at a rate of
several hundred droplets per seconds.
ØThe transfer is spatter free and very
stable.
ØHigh dc current and voltages and
large diameter electrodes are used ,
with argon rich gas mixture used as a
shielding gas.
ØIn globular transfer , carbon dioxide
gas are used , and globules propelled
by the forces of electric arc transfer the
metal , with considerable spatter.
ØIn short circuiting , the metal is
transferred in individual droplets ,
more than 50 per second.
ØAs electrode tip touches the molten
metal and short circuit.
ØLow current voltages are utilized ,
with carbon dioxide rich gases and
with electrodes made of small
diameter wires.
ØThe power required is about 2 kw.
Cont………
MIG OPERATION
GMAW torch nozzle cutaway image. (1) Torch handle, (2) Molded phenolic dielectric
(shown in white) and threaded metal nut insert (yellow), (3) Shielding gas nozzle,
(4) Contact tip, (5) Nozzle output face

GMAW WIRE FEED UNIT


GMAW SYSTEM SETUP
ADVANTAGES – 1. Can be applied to non-ferrous metals
2. automated/semi-automated process with good
speed
DISADVANTAGES – 1. Porosity due to gas entrapment
when the gas is not pure 2. Cannot be used outdoors
or under water due loss of shielding gas in such
conditions

APPLICATIONS - GMAW is commonly used in industries


such as the automobile industry, where it is
preferred for its versatility and speed. A related
process, flux cored arc welding, often does not utilize
a shielding gas, instead employing a hollow electrode
wire that is filled with flux on the inside.
FLUX CORED ARC
WELDING
ØThis process is similar to gas metal arc
welding , with the exception that the
electrode is tubular in shape and is filled
with flux.
ØCored electrode produce a more stable
arc , improve weld contour , and produce
better mechanical properties of the weld
metal.
ØSelf shielded cored electrodes are also
available.
ØThese electrodes don’t requires external
gas shielding , because they contain
ELECTROGAS WELDING
ØThis process is used primarily for
welding the edges of sections vertically
in one pass , with the piece placed edge
to edge .
ØIt is known as machine welding process
because it require special equipment .
ØThe weld metal is deposited into a
weld cavity between the two pieces to
be joined.
ØThe space is enclosed by the two water
cooled copper dams to prevent the
ØSingle or multiple electrodes are fed
through a conduit , and a continuous
arc is maintained using flux cored
electrodes .
ØThe current ranges from 400-750
amp.
ØPower requirement is about 20 kw.
ØShielding is done by the means of an
inert gas such as argon and it depends
upon the type of material being
welded.
ELECTROSLAG WELDING
ØThe application of this process are
similar to electrogas welding .
ØThe main difference is that the arc is
started between the tip and the bottom
of the part to be welded.
ØFlux is added and then melted by the
heat of arc.
ØAfter the molten slag reaches the tip of
electrode , the arc is extinguished .
ØHeat is then produced by the
continuously by the electrical resistance
ARC WELDING PROCESSES
NON CONSUMABLE
ØIn these processes generally tungsten
electrode is used.
ØAs one pole of the arc , it generates the
heat required for welding .
ØA shielding gas is supplied from an
external sources to protect the welding
zone from atmospheric effects.
ØThese are the following processes
which come under this category.
Cont…………..
GAS TUNGSTEN ARC
WELDING
ØIt is also called TIG welding .
ØThe filler metal is provided from the
filler wire , because the tungsten
electrode is not consumed in this
operation.
ØA constant and stable arc gap is
maintained at a constant current
level.
ØIn tig welding filler metal may or
may not be used e.g in the welding of
ØThe power supply may be ac or dc
type depending upon the metal to be
welded.
ØAc is used for al , mg , because the
cleaning action of ac remove oxides
and improves weld quality.
ØPower requirement ranges from 8-20
kw.
ØThere is one major disadvantage of
this process is that the contamination
of tungsten electrode is taking place
by the molten metal.
GTAW SYSTEM SETUP
GTAW WELD AREA
• ADVANATAGES – 1. most preferred method for non
ferrous metals 2. best quality welds are produced
• DISADVANTAGES – 1. complex technique requires
skilled labour 2. costly (requires shielding gas and
filler material)

APPLICATIONS- 1. The aerospace industry is one of


the primary users of gas tungsten arc welding , it is
used extensively in the manufacture of space
vehicles, and is also frequently employed to weld
small-diameter, thin-wall tubing.
2. In maintenance and repair work, the process is
commonly used to repair tools and dies, especially
components made of aluminum and magnesium.
3. The welds it produces are highly resistant to
corrosion and cracking over long time periods, GTAW
is the welding procedure of choice for critical welding
PLASMA ARC WELDING
ØIn this process a concentrated
plasma arc is produced and is aimed
to the weld area .
ØThe arc is stable and reaches temp.
as high as 33000 c.
ØA plasma is a ionized hot gas ,
combination of equal number of
electrons and ions.
ØThe plasma is initiated between the
tungsten electrodes and the orifice
ØOperating current is usually below 100A, but
they can be higher for special applications.
Ø There are 2 methods of plasma arc
welding:---
3. In the transferred arc method the
workpiece being welded is part of the
circuit current.
Ø The arc transfers from the electrode to the
workpiece.
2. In the non transferred method the arc
occurs between the electrode and the
nozzle.
Ø Heat is carried to the workpiece by the
plasma gas.
THERMIT WELDING
ØThis process involves exothermic reaction
between metal oxides and metallic reducing
agents.
ØThe heat of the reaction is the utilized in
welding.
ØThe most common mixture of material used
in welding steel and cast iron is finally divided
particles of iron oxides, Fe, Al.
ØThis non explosive mixture produces a
temperature of 3200 C in less a minute.
ØThis welding process involves the alignment
of the parts to be joined, but with a gap
ØIf the parts are thick, the mold cavity may
be preheated to improve welding and to
dry the mold.
ØDrying of the mold is very important
otherwise superheated steam trapped in
the mold can cause explosions.
ØThe superheated product of the reaction
are allow to flow into the gap, melting the
edge of the parts being joined.
ØThis welding suitable for welding and
repairing castings and thick steel structural
sections.
Cont………..
ELECTRON-BEAM
ØIn this processWELDING
the heat is generated by
high velocity narrow beam electrons.
ØThe kinetic energy of the electrons is
converted into heat as they strike
workpiece.
ØThe process requires special equipments
to focus the beam on the workpiece in the
vacuum.
ØThe higher the vacuum, more the beam
penetrates and greater depth to width
ratio.
ØThis process is used for workpiece whose
LASER BEAM WELDING
ØThis welding process utilizes high power
laser beam as the source of heat to
produce fusion weld’
ØIn this beam can be focused on very small
area which is being welded.
ØIt has high energy density, so it has high
penetrating capability.
ØThis process is suitable for welding deep
and narrow joints.
ØIn this, the depth to width ratio is ranging
from 4:10.
ØIts application is in automotive
industry for welding of transmission
components.
ØThe power level is up to 100 kw.
ØLaser beam welding process
produces welds of good quality, with
minimum shrinkage and distortion.
Cont………..
References:--
v Manufacturing engg.
And tech. by
Kalpakjian
thanks