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Past Continuous Tense
English Alphabetic Parts of Speech Sentences ³ Verb to BE ³ Verb to DO ³ Verb to HAVE Nouns Countable Nouns Spelling Rules for Plurals Uncountable Nouns Definite & Indefinite Articles
Future Continuous Tense Present Perfect Tense Past Perfect Tense Future Perfect Tense Present Perfect Continuous
Pronouns Object Pronouns Reflexive Pronouns Relative Pronouns Making Questions How any/ some/ Making Negative TENSES Present Simple Tense Past Simple Tense Future Simple Tense Present Continuous Tense
Imperatives Modals Comparing Adjectives Adverbs Active & Passive Transitive & Intransitive Verbs ... Prepositions Question-Tags ´ Conditional if Reported Speech Countries and Nationalities
A N B O C P D Q E R F S G T H U I V
a n b o c p d q e r f s g t h u i v
b c d f g h j k l m n p q r s t
v w x
a e i o u
««. he. will play rich man Adverb Ahmed writes quickly. Verb Adjective Play.Parts of Speech Noun Ahmed. she. played. etc. . .. it. book Pronoun I.
Alas! She died. Interjection Ali and Ahmad visited us yesterday. . They traveled by plane. ! . Conjunction .Parts of Speech Preposition Ahmed goes to school.
the a . This is the book I bought yesterday. an This is a book. This is an apple. . .Parts of Speech Article : a. . . an. the . .
: : Ali doctor. ( ): . : Ali is a doctor.
Sentences Simple Sentences Compound Sentences Complex Sentences .
: I saw a boy riding a bicycle.Simple Sentences : : I saw a boy. The boy was riding a bicycle. (1 (2 .
Compound Sentences : and/ but /or and: Ahmed did his homework yesterday. : : Ahmed did his homework yesterday and Anas helped him. Anas helped him. .
. : but: He is unhappy. We can watch TV.Compound Sentences Khaled is rich. : Khaled is rich but he is unhappy. or: We can play football. : : We can play football or we can watch TV.
Complex Sentences : Main Clause Subordinate Clause : Noun Clause Adjectival Clause Adverbial Clause .
Clause & Phrase A clause is a combination of words containing a verb and has a complete meaning. : . : . I saw the man carrying a stick. I saw the man who was carrying a stick. A phrase is a combination of words forming part of the sentence but without a verb. .
: Subject Present Past Past participle ( I He. You am is are was was were been been been ) . She. They. It We.³Verb to BE ³ It is used as a principal and a helping verb.
Verb to BE ³ . . ³ . They are boys. :Examples I am a pupil.
Affirmative I am at home. You are not tall. Negative I am not at home. You are tall. ( ) (not) .Negative Sentences with the verb to ´ BE ³ We make negative statements with the verb to BE by using the word not after the verb to be. .
No. they were. I am. they were not. No. Yes. .Making Questions with the ´ verb to BE ³ ³Yes´ or ³No´ questions and short answers : ³Yes´ or ³No´ questions Affirmative ( ) ( ) Short Answers Negative Be +Subject + Complement Yes + Subject + Be No + Subject + Be + not Are Were you the boys a teacher? at school? Yes. I am not.
you. they He.Verb to DO ³ : Subject Present ³ It is used as a principal and a helping verb. we. . Past Past participle ( ) done done I. . She. It do does did did .
. they He. It have has had had had had ) . : Subject Present Past Past participle ( I. . you. She. we.Verb to HAVE ³ ³ It is used as a principal and a helping verb.
. a new watch.Negative Sentences with verb to HAVE as a main verb ´ ³ Subject + do/does/did + not + have + Complement I He They do does did not not not have have have a car. breakfast this morning.
No. No. . I do. they did.Making Questions with the verb to HAVE as a main verb ´ ³Yes´ or ³No´ questions ³ Short Answers Affirmative Negative Do/Does/ Did +Subject +have + Complement Yes + Subject + do/does/did No + Subject + do/does/did +not Do Does Did you he they have have have a car? a new watch? Breakfast this morning? Yes. they did not. Yes. he does. he does not No. Yes. I do not.
: They have lived here for two years. Adel has just finished his work. . .Verb to HAVE as a helping verb ´ ³ Verb to have is used as a helping verb to form the perfect tense.
. not : I have lived here for a long time. I have not lived here for a long time.Negative Sentences with verb to HAVE as a helping verb ´ ³ .
they have not. : They have lived here for a long time. Have they lived here for a long time? Yes.Making Questions with verb to HAVE as a helping verb ´ ³ ³Yes´ or ³No´ questions and short answers : . No. they have. .
I have to leave now. . : . : . ________________________________________________ ____ To show that something is caused by another person. ________________________________________________ With some modal auxiliaries. I have my shoes cleaned every week. : . You had better see a doctor. has to. had to.Other Uses of Verb to HAVE ´ ³ To express necessity in the present and past have to.
fruit. « book.Nouns Nouns are words we use to name: : . . father. « school. happiness. freedom. street. boredom. sugar. truth. table. joy.. anger. «. teacher. neighbor. «. house. city. «. People Things Places Ideas Feelings man. honesty.
Countable & Uncountable Nouns Countable Nouns: are things that are counted as one. two. . and so on. : . three. Uncountable Nouns: cannot be counted. : .
an.Countable Nouns These nouns have singular and plural forms. one. (a/an) You cannot use singular countable nouns alone without words such as: a. . . Before singular countable nouns you can use a/an. his. my. your. . etc.
³s´.Spelling Rules for Plurals We form plurals of most nouns by adding ³s´ to the singular noun. Singular one book one horse Plural two books many horses .
x. s Singular match bus dish box Plural matches buses dishes boxes . ch. z.Spelling Rules for Plurals es sh.
Spelling Rules for Plurals ies city baby . y y Plural cities babies Singular s y Plural boys keys Singular boy key .
Spelling Rules for Plurals es o Singular potato tomato . Plural potatoes tomatoes s o Plural radios zoos Singular radio zoo .
Spelling Rules for Plurals es v fe f Singular knife shelf : Plural knives shelves Plural classrooms policemen Singular classroom policeman .
Spelling Rules for Plurals : Singular man woman child person foot tooth goose mouse Plural men women children people feet teeth geese mice .
Uncountable Nouns Uncountable nouns cannot be counted. tea. music. s : salt. an a . meat. gold. food. blood. coffee. es .
Uncountable Nouns flour information butter sugar news milk rice rain cloth salt coffee food gold glass paper wood steel music meat knowledge tea blood cheese bread furniture grass marble .
Milk has many minerals. Five liters of oil do not operate this machine. . : Coffee is a traditional drink in Saudi Arabia. Two cups of tea are not enough for me. .Uncountable Nouns .
. The is used as definite articles. an . We put a before a noun starting with a constant sound. .Definite & Indefinite Articles a/an are used as indefinite articles. a We put an before a noun starting with a vowel sound. .
. . a We put ³an´ before a noun starting with a vowel sound.Indefinite Articles ³a´ & ³an´ We put ³a´ before a noun starting with a constant sound. an Vowels : a e i o u .
Before a job. a table an egg . . Saleh is a doctor He is an engineer. She is an English woman. a particular group of people or a nationality. (means every day). He washes his hands ten times a day. With numbers that mean every. ´ ³ .Indefinite Articles ³a´ & ³an´ We use a/an Before a singular countable noun.
. wood.Indefinite Articles ³a´ & ³an´ We DO NOT use a/an No article is used with abstract nouns and the names of metals. silver. No article is used before plural or uncountable nouns. There are books on the table. Love. beauty. Milk is good for you. hatred. . gold .
The is used before: : ....... The river Nile The Ka aba The Arabian Gulf The Red Sea Umar answered the question. The names of musical instruments. seas. A noun which is the object of a sentence. . Can you play the piano? . .. etc . . Names of rivers.The Definite Article ³The´ ´ ³ ´ ³ A noun that is the only one of its kind. . oceans.
. ´ ³ The United Kingdom The U. Listen to the radio/news. . With some general expressions.The Definite Article ³The´ ´ ³ The is used before: : Names of some countries. With dates. With some time expressions. .A. . at the weekend in the evening On the first day of every month. Go to the market/desert.S. .
work. . My favorite subject is mathematics.. . home. . . No article is used before such words as school. I saw a man. . The man was young. in June in summer (sometimes in the summer). I do not like science. on Monday. I am going to school. bed. I always go to bed early. No article is used with the names of studies of subjects. No article is used before such words such as day and month names. etc..The Definite Article ³The´ ´ ³ Use article with the name that is repeated. before breakfast..
Pronouns A pronoun replaces a noun. Subject Pronouns Object Pronouns Possessive Possessive Adjectives Pronouns Reflexive Pronouns I you he she it we you they me you him her it us you them my your his her its our your their mine yours his hers its ours yours theirs myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourselves themselves .
He has passed all his tests.Pronouns We use a pronouns instead of a noun when it is clear who or what we are talking about . . . Examples Ali is a good student.
lend. . send.Object Pronouns We use an object pronoun After a preposition. After to and for with verbs like make. The little boy made it for her. show. take. pass. give. Do you live near them? Send the box directly to me.
With some special expressions Help yourself . Enjoy yourself. (I live alone) .Reflexive Pronouns Reflexive pronouns are used: for emphasis Did you do the decorations yourself ? I did the painting myself. I live by myself. Behave yourself.
. : . that .Relative Pronouns The relative pronouns are used to join sentences together. . -1 who which . -2 . . whose .
The man who came here is a doctor 2) My friend swims well. He lives here. The man is a doctor.Relative Pronouns Who [ ] . : who Here is the man. My friend who lives here swims well. The man is a doctor. who The man : Here is the man who is a doctor. . : 1) The man came here.
. whom : whom him : 1) The man was working with me. ( ) The man whom I visited came here. This is the girl whom you gave a flower. I visited him. The man whom I paid was working with me. 2) This is the girl. You gave her a flower. [ ] : The man came here.Relative Pronouns Whom . I paid him.
. He lost it yesterday. which ) his book him : ( He found his book which he lost yesterday.Relative Pronouns Which [ ] : . which He found his book. : 1) This is the house. I live in it. This book which is very useful is cheap. It is very useful. This is the house which I live in. 2) This book is cheap.
This is the boy that (whom) you met. .Relative Pronouns That [ ] : . I have a bird. It sings. I have a bird that (which) sings. that This is the boy. You met her.
whose This is the man. This is the man whose car hit the boy. car whose car . His car hit the boy.Relative Pronouns Whose [ ] : . the man .
: Helping Verbs : am ± is ± are ± was ± were ± have ± has ± had ± will ± would ± shall ± should ± can ± could ± may ± might ± must ± ought to : Are they doctors? They are doctors. Can they help us? Can she help us? Will you go to the market?
They play tennis. Do they play tennis? I write books. Do you write books?
: Ahmed plays tennis. Does Ahmed play tennis? Huda watches TV. Does Huda watch TV?
: did : They watched TV last night. Did they watch TV last night?
I played football yesterday. Did you play football yesterday? ( ) : .
Making Questions : Wh Questions Where? When? Why? What? Which? Who? Whom? / .
) Whose? How? How many? How much? How long? How old? How far? .Making Questions Wh Questions (Cont.
Steps for Making a Question : When.etc (2 (3 * * * (4 (5 : do does did . ( ) helping verb (1 . Why . Where.. . s s .
Steps for Making a Question : . * . are * did at school . . Where did they play tennis? ed . They are going to eat meat. What are they going to eat? meat they They played tennis at school.
: Who broke the window? What describes accidents? Ahmed broke the window. .Steps for Making a Question : I : you we you you I your who my what . The book describes accidents.
How was he when he met his friend? Thirty boys are in this class. How many boys are in this class? I am twenty years old. How old are you? You paid five pounds for this coat. How much did you pay for this coat? How many How old How much .How How He was very pleased when he met his friend.
How tall is Sami? How far How long How high How tall .How It is 450 KM from Dammam to Riyadh. How long is this rope? This fence is four meters high. How high is this fence? Sami is one meter and a half tall. How far is it from Dammam to Riyadh? This rope is two meters long.
2) I did not see anybody. . some 1) We have some books. 2) Somebody was there. any : 1) Do you have any books? 2) Is anybody at home? 3) Is he anywhere? : 1) We do not have any books. . 3) He is not anywhere. 3) He is somewhere./ some / any .
He can not help us. . He can help us. They are not happy.Making Negative : not Helping Verbs are: : am ± is ± are ± was ± were ± have ± has ± had ± will ± would ± shall ± should ± can ± could ± may ± might ± must ± ought to : They are happy.
Making Negative Long forms & Short forms of Verb to be (Affirmative) Long Forms (written) (Negative) Long Forms (written) Short Forms (spoken) Short Forms (spoken) I am He is She is It is You are We are They are I¶m He¶s She¶s It¶s You¶re We¶re They¶re I am not He is not She is not It is not You are not We are not They are not I¶m not He¶s not She¶s not It¶s not You¶re not We¶re not They¶re not .
....nor never not so««««. Negative no..nor neither««««.or .. not every .. any neither««««. not : . ... does... did) : : Affirmative some both««and sometimes as«««as all every . (do..Making Negative .... either«..as not all no.
TENSES 1. Present Simple Tense (What always happens?) . : every generally rarely always often never usually sometimes from time to time . .
They usually sleep at 11. : .m. We often drink coffee in the morning. A cow gives us milk. Present Simple Tense (What always happens?) I go to school everyday.00 p. s Ali drinks milk every morning. She is never late to school.TENSES 1. .
ed Irregular verbs : last ago yesterday in 1988 AD. Past Simple Tense (What happened yesterday?) .TENSES 2. in 1415 AH: .
She. You I watched television last night. We.TENSES 2. Past Simple Tense (What happened yesterday. last night ?) was were I. We went to Makkah two months ago. He. They visited their uncle yesterday. it They. .
in 1430 AH : . . next week. . will will shall will we I . . Future Simple Tense will happen tomorrow. in the future?) (What 3. : shall shall tomorrow next in the future in 2010 AD.TENSES 3.
next week.TENSES 3. They will play football next Friday. is . : am . Future Simple Tense happen tomorrow. are going to . He will join the army in the future. in the future?) (What will I will go to school tomorrow.
she. we.TENSES 4. you : now + ing : am + verb + ing is + verb + ing are + verb + ing at the moment look listen at the present time . Present Continuous Tense (What is happening now?) . am / is / are + I He. it They.
Present Continuous Tense (What is happening at the moment?) I am reading at the moment. Look! The bus is coming. They are watching television now.TENSES 4. .
Present Continuous Tense : like wish hope appear believe love hate hear fear trust want dislike think consider understand prefer feel seem fit .TENSES 4.
Past Continuous Tense (What was happening? ) . was / were + + ing : : when while as because : .TENSES 5. .
( ( ) ) . Past Continuous Tense While I was sleeping.TENSES 5. . a thief entered my room. my father came. . When we were eating.
Past Continuous Tense : : A thief entered while I was sleeping . My father came when we were eating . .TENSES 5.
TENSES 5. Past Continuous Tense : while . . while .
6. Future Continuous Tense
(What will be happening?)
( will + be +
+ ing )
at from«to ..
6. Future Continuous Tense
By 7.30 tomorrow, I will be flying to Cairo. They will be waiting for you at 5 o'clock .
7. Present Perfect Tense . (What has happened?)
has / have + past participle
: since yet recently for ever already
She has written three letters just now. I have not visited him since 1995. Ahmed has already finished his homework. Present Perfect Tense I have lived in Riyadh for six years.TENSES 7. .
TENSES Since & For Since means from some definite point or period n the past up to now . since 2 o¶clock Monday yesterday last night last week/ last month/ last year 1996 last century he came«««« ´ For means a definite period of time ³ ´ ³ for a moment 3 minutes an hour many hours 3 days/ 5 weeks / 4 months a year 10 years a century . .
Past Perfect Tense (What had happened?) Past participle .TENSES 8. : had +past participle : I after when before as soon as .
. Ahmed had done his homework before he went to school.TENSES 8. As soon as they had bought a car. . Past Perfect Tense I had washed before I prayed. they drove to Makkah. They went home after they had finished their work.
: will + have + past participle : I by at . Future Perfect Tense (What will have happened by ?) Past paticiple .TENSES 9.
she will have written five letters. .00 tonight. Future Perfect Tense By 2. I will have finished my work.00 this afternoon.TENSES 9. At 10.
has / have + been + : + ing : I for since .TENSES 10. Present Perfect Continuous Tense (What has been happening?) .
(I am still studying English) (She is still sleeping) .TENSES 10. Present Perfect Continuous Tense I have been studying English for six years. She has been sleeping since 2 o¶clock.
: Present Perfect Maha started making cakes three hours ago. There are now one hundred cakes on the table..TENSES 10. Present Perfect Tense She has made 100 cakes. . : Present Perfect Continuous Tense She has been making cakes for three hours. Present Perfect Continuous Tense Present Perfect Cont.
. .Imperatives Imperatives are verbs used at the beginning of sentences either in the affirmative or negative to indicate instructions. The Imperatives uses the simple form of the verb such as: walk. open. read.etc. signs and notices or telling someone what to do. .«. invitations.
(Affirmative) Take two tablets every four hours.Imperatives Give Instructions Mix the flour and the sugar. do not wait (Negative) or me. (Affirmative) Please start. (Affirmative) Make Invitations Come in. Tell someone what to do open your book. make yourselves at home. f . (Affirmative) (Negative) Do not forget to post the letter.
(Affirmative) Keep off the grass. Make Signs & Notices (Affirmative) Push. (Affirmative) Insert 2 X 50 SR.Imperatives Give Warnings (Affirmative) Keep out! Danger. Make Requests Please open the door (Affirmative) ..
might. . but it can have several meanings and time frames. should. could.Modals A modal has only one form of the verb for all persons. can. ought to + ( ) Modals have no infinitives or past participles. . must. Form shall. depending on the context in which it is used. . will would. may.
You should obey your teachers. We will do as you wish. I will travel when I like. He does not want to obey me: but he shall. He will visit us tomorrow.Modals Modals Expresses: : Promise Determination Threat Example You shall take a reward. You shall be punished if you come late. Determination or promise . shall should Duty Advice or opinion will The simple future tense. You should stop smoking.
can. I thought that the weather might change He can do it carefully. will be able could Ability Ability in the future Past. He had to stay home to study. am/is/are able to shall be able. It could rain now. . I shall be able to help you. Do not leave now. He is able to solve the problem.Modals Modals Expresses: : Possibility Example might I hoped that I might succeed. must had to Faisal could not come to our dinner party. He could be sick. You must listen to your teachers. Ali is not in class today. present or future possibility / / Necessity The past form of must: past necessity Fahad could drive his car a year ago.
That was a mistake) . ought to + infinitive ought to have + past participle Actions that were advisable in the past You ought to have studied.Modals Modals Expresses: : Advice Example You ought to help the poor. (You did not.
he will. I may not sleep. He would succeed. they should. Negative No. Should they eat now? Yes. they should not. No. No. Yes.Modals Affirmative Negative Question Short Answers Affirmative They should eat now. He will not leave. May I sleep? . He would not succeed. he would not. Will he leave? Would he leave? Yes. he will not. I might succeed. he would. He will leave. They should not eat now. Might I succeed? I may sleep. I might not succeed.
you can. He could talk. . No. he could not. Yes. No. No. Yes. I must. you could. he could not. he could.Modals Affirmative Negative Question Short Answers Affirmative Negative I can do it. You must not go now. You ought not to help them. I ought not. Yes. You ought to help them. No. Yes. You must go now. Can I do it? Could he talk? Could we have a test tomorrow? Must you go now? Ought you to help them? Yes. I must not. I cannot do it. I ought to. He could not talk. We could have a test tomorrow. No. We could not have a test tomorrow. you can not.
My Car is faster than yours.Comparing Adjectives 1. e er i y easy heavy y easier than heavier than .1 r . . safer than safe simpler than simple . Comparing Short Adjectives than er : Ali is older than Ahmed.
1. Comparing Short Adjectives :
Everest is the highest mountain. This is the biggest building in Riyadh.
e . the safest
the easiest easy
2. Comparing Long Adjectives
: . .1
beautiful dangerous important
difficult correct fluent
Jeddah is more beautiful than Riyadh. French is more difficult than English.
2. Comparing Long Adjectives
the most Amal is the most beautiful girl in her class. This is the most important subject in this book.
This girl is the worst one in her class. Comparing Long Adjectives good bad ( ) ( ) ( far little ) many much better than worse than more than the best the worst the most : less than farther than the least the farthest Adel is better than his brother at school. .Comparing Adjectives 2.
.. ..as ) . not as .( as ) . Ali is as tall as his brother. This bag is not as big as my bag. This bag is as big as my bag.as not as«.as . Ali is not as tall as his brother.as ( as««.
. ly to the ly slowly happily nice nicely slow happy careful carefully .Adverbs [ ] An Adverb always modifies a verb. Most adverbs are formed by adding adjectives.
Adverbs of time express the time when an action is or was done. The soldier fought bravely.[ ] Adverbs There are many kinds of adverbs: : Adverbs of manner: express how an action was done. : I m going to leave for Cairo tomorrow. : . What s going to happen next? . : I closed the window carefully. .
. . I ve looked everywhere for my lost pen. Most of them refer to time. ly : . We get up early to catch an early train.Adverbs [ ] Adverbs of place: express when an action is done. : I shall stand here. . Some words that end in ly can be both adjectives or adverbs. daily monthly weekly yearly A daily newspaper is published daily.
: always usually seldom never often sometimes rarely occasionally Verb to BE: Ali is always on time. : .Adverbs [ ] Adverbs of frequency tell how often we do something : : . Other Verbs: : Ali sometimes reads a book.
Adverbial Clause of Time Conjunctions when. : I found a watch. since These words (conjunctions) link the adverbial clause of time with the main sentence. after. as. . before. as soon as. . until. I found a watch while I was walking in the street. whenever. while. I was walking in the street.
. .Adverbial Clause of Place Conjunctions: where. wherever These words (conjunctions) link the adverbial clause of place with the main sentence. : Wherever he goes his brother follows him.
as These words (conjunctions) link the adverbial clause of cause with the main sentence.Adverbial Clause of Cause Conjunctions: because. since. . : I stayed at home yesterday because it was raining. .
. . as if : He speaks as if he were a king. . would will . .Adverbial Clause of Manner Conjunctions: As. as if. was were It looks as if it would rain. as though These words (conjunctions) link the adverbial clause of manner with the main sentence.
( + ) : He was walking quickly in order that he might not be late.Adverbial Clause of Purpose Conjunctions: that. He wishes to succeed. . He works hard so that (that or in order that) he may succeed. ( + ) : He works hard. in order that These words (conjunctions) link the adverbial clause of purpose with the main sentence. . so that. a) We use (may + infinitive) when the main verb is in the present or future. . . b) We use (might + infinitive) when the main verb is in the simple past.
. so + adjective or adverb + that .Adverbial Clause of Result We use: to link the main sentence with the adverbial clause of result. The student walked so slowly that he reached school late. such + noun+ that : The man is so weak that he cannot walk. It was such a good performance that everybody applauded. He wrote such good answers that he got he marks.
Although (though) he is poor. He is happy. he is happy. : He is poor. although These words (conjunctions) link the adverbial clause of contrast with the main sentence. .Adverbial Clause of Contrast Conjunctions: though. .
: Nabeel is as clever as his father. .as. so as These words (conjunctions) link the adverbial clause of contrast with the main sentence. Sami is not so strong as his brother.Adverbial Clause of Contrast Conjunctions: as . .
unless (if not) These words (conjunctions) link the adverbial clause of condition with the main sentence. (conditional if type 3) Unless the rain falls. : If we are ill.Adverbial Clause of Condition Conjunctions: if. . he would have hurt himself. the crops will not grow. (conditional if type 1) If we work hard. (conditional if type 1) . (conditional if type 2) If he had fallen. we go to bed. we would succeed. we will succeed. (conditional if type 1) If we worked hard.
not as .. .as [ ] .as as««..[ ] as .as not as«.as . Hamad does not drive as dangerously as his brother.. Ahmed drives as dangerously as his brother.
. : Statements Questions Command .Active & Passive .
Ahmed Passive by . The window was broken (by Ahmed) yesterday. . Ahmed ___________________________________________ The window was broken yesterday. Active .Active & Passive A. Statements Ahmed broke the window yesterday.
3 . .1 .5 . to be by .2 . (Past participle). Statements Passive Active : ( . .4 . ) .Active & Passive A.
Huda wrote the lesson.Active & Passive A. Passive Letters are written (by Ali). Statements : Active Ali writes letters. The apple has been eaten (by her). She has eaten the apple. Ahmed is being helped (by Ali). A car will be bought (by Saleh). . Saleh will buy a car. The lesson was written (by Huda). Khaled is helping Ahmed.
might be. were being has been. were shall be. could be. will be am being. is. are was. ought to be to be . Statements : am. may be.Active & Passive A. is being. must be. are being was being. have been had been can be.
. . Questions Passive Active : ( .5 . . by ) .Active & Passive B.3 .4 .1 . to be .2 .
Questions : Active Does Ahmed write letters? Did he eat the cake?. By whom the window was broken? .Active & Passive B. Will Ali buy a new car? Why is he using a pen? Who broke the window? Passive Are letters written (by Ali)? Was the cake eaten (by him)? Will a new car be bought (by Ali)? Ahmed is being helped (by Ali).
3 . ) . to be let .1 .4 . be .2 . Command Passive Active : .Active & Passive C. ( .
Send this letter to your friend. . Let the work be done. Command : Active Passive Do the work.Active & Passive C. Let the door be opened. Let this letter be sent to your friend. Open the door.
Active Ali does not write letters Dickens wrote those novels. did he? Passive Letters are not written (by Ali). was it? .Active & Passive . didn¶t he? Dickens didn¶t write that play. weren¶t they? That play wasn¶t written by Dickens. Those novels were written by Dickens.
. . .Prepositions . There are also prepositions of time and prepositions of place. A preposition shows the relation between the subject and the object.
I will travel on the National Day. date Special days To mean above On Monday On Friday morning My birthday is on June 10. evening. night + Afternoon. . The tea is on the table.Use of Prepositions Prepositions Use Example on Days Day + morning.
I go home in the evening He is in the masjid.Use of Prepositions Prepositions Use Season Year Month The morning The evening To mean inside Example The trees grow in spring. I go to work in the morning. I was born in 1968. in . The test is in May.
We will travel at the weekend. . We sleep at night. We pray at noon everyday. I will meat you at the school festival. I will talk to my father at lunch. He is at the grocer¶s.Use of Prepositions Prepositions Use Example at Time Festival Meal times The weekend Noon Night To mean place I will come back at 2 o¶clock.
They are standing at the dinner table The cat is under the table. The teacher is in front of the class.Use of Prepositions Prepositions of Place Prepositions Use Example at at an exact place at work at the table He lives at number 5. under in front of to / direction/place I go to school everyday. . Ahmed is at work. King Fahad Street.
I live in Saudi Arabia. You were in the club last night. I live in Al-Madina. The baby is in bed. Ali is sitting in his chair.Use of Prepositions Prepositions of Place Prepositions Use To mean inside In a country In a town/street in bed In a building or area In a chair / Example Put this book in the box. in .
on TV Time Ali watches football on TV every Saturday. The wall is behind the class. I am from Riyadh. Samah is sitting between Fatma and Salwa. He arrives on time. .Use of Prepositions Prepositions of Place Prepositions Use Example with from behind between I write with a pen.
The water is spilling onto the floor. The knife is on the table. The electrician is putting his hand into the TV.Use of Prepositions More Examples Prepositions Example in on at near between opposite into onto The medicine is in the bottle. Ahmed is sitting near the window. The bank is opposite to the post office. . Someone is at the door. The house is between the school and the masjid.
The light is over (above) the table.Use of Prepositions More Examples Prepositions Example off out of across over/above under/below through among The man is falling off the chair. The child is falling out of the window. . The ball is going through the window. The teacher is sitting among the students. The fire is under (below) the stairs. The carpenter cut across the wood.
Ahmed is sitting near the window. The electrician is putting his hand into the TV.Use of Prepositions More Examples Prepositions Example in on at near between opposite into onto The medicine is in the bottle. . The knife is on the table. The bank is opposite to the post office. Someone is at the door. The water is spilling onto the floor. The house is between the school and the mosque.
Use of Prepositions
round in front of behind on top of at the side of along next to
The car is going round the tree. The child is sitting in front of the TV. The headmaster is sitting behind the pupils. The sweets are on top of the table. The garage is at the side of the house. The man is walking along the street. The bank is next to the baker¶s.
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Questions that we expect the answer Yes ´ ´ :
* There s a supermarket near here, isn t there?
Yes , there is.
Yes : *
* You come from the United States, don t you?
. Yes, I do. do *
I don t. I didn t. does it? No. do you? No. . it doesn t. do/does 3) You didn t travel last year. . did you? No. * did * .Question-Tags Questions that we expect the answer No ´ ´ 1) You don t come from Saudi Arabia. 2) It doesn t take long time by car.
. I will stay at home. ( : If you eat too much.Conditional ³if´ ´ ³ 1) will + if + present ) . you will become fat. If it rains tomorrow.
If I were you.Conditional ³if´ ´ ³ 2) if + past would + . If Shakespeare lived today. : if + subject + past was . . he would use different English. ( would + ) subject+ would + were be . I would buy a new car. .
he would have seen the Ka aba. . If he had visited Makkah.Conditional ³if´ ´ ³ would have + 3) if + had + If he had lived in Taif. he would have been happy.
becomes . . turn it off.Conditional ³if´ ´ ³ 0) . don t drive a car. Or Don t drive a car if you are under 17. If the radio is too loud. 0) if + present instructions Or Turn the radio off if it is too loud. ( if + present present ) If you boil water. If you are under 17. it becomes steam.
Indirect Speech There are four kinds of direct and Indirect Speech.Reported Speech . : 1) Statement 2) Question 3) Command 4) Exclamation .
say. They said that they were happy. (. We say: ³We are playing football now´. She says that she will cook the food tomorrow. . : : They said to him: ³We shall see you tomorrow. We say that we are playing football now. and added that Indirect He said that he lived in Riyadh. She said that she had not been to the school library recently. We shall visit Ahmed´.Reported Speech Statement Direct ³I live in Riyadh´ ³We are happy´ She said: "I have not been in the school library recently´. says : She says: ³I will cook the food tomorrow´.) They told him that they would see him the next day and added that they would visit Ahmed. He told me that he would see me the next day. He said to me: "I shall see you tomorrow´.
Reported Speech Question Reported Direct * : -1 : asked Present Past Past Past Perfect . . . -2 -3 -4 .
if ³What is your name?´ ³Why are you late?´ ³Where is your book?´ : ³Is if He asked me if my school was very large. ³Does he go to school?´ . do does your school very large?´ . The teacher asked me why I was late.Reported Speech Question Direct Indirect He asked me what my name was. I asked him if he went to school. He asked me where my book was. ³Where do you live?´ He asked me where I lived..
asks They ask me who my English teacher is. ask. .Reported Speech Question Direct Indirect ) . Ali asked me if Ahmed had bought a new car. He asks me what my marks are.( ³Where did you go yesterday?´ ³Did Ahmed buy a new car?´ : ³Who is your English teacher?´ ³What are your marks?´ did + had past participle Sami asked me where I had gone the day before.
Please. .Reported Speech Command Reported Direct * : ordered begged I advised told . . do -2 -3 -4 . to . . ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) -1 .
He told me not to go to the market that night. . He ordered the servant to bring him a glass of water.Reported Speech Command Direct Indirect He said to the servant: ³bring me a glass of water´. The doctor advised me to drink a lot of water. The son begged his father to give him some money. He said to me: ³Do not go to the market tonight´. The son said to his father: ³please give me some money´. The doctor said to me: ³Drink a lot of water´.
! Alas. how. Hurrah.Reported Speech Exclamation : * -1 with anger with admiration with sadness that Reported Direct : with regret with joy . Oh : . what: -2 -3 : .
would not find his money.Reported Speech Exclamation Direct Indirect He said : ³Alas! I will not find He said with sorrow that he my money´. He said with regret that he had been foolish. He said : ³How foolish I have been´. .
ese : . Country Saudi Arabia Oman Algeria Libya Palestine Syria Nationality Saudi Omani Algerian Libyan Palestinian Syrian Country Britain Turkey China Lebanon France Switzerland Nationality British Turkish Chinese Lebanese French Swiss . ian. n.Countries and Nationalities : : ´ ³ : i. ish.
Al-Ansari .ENGLISH GRAMMAR Prepared by: Mulla (2002) Reference: ³Grammar For All Levels´ by Adnan Naim Edited by: Dr Saif H.
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