Cause & Effect
Tim Drown UPH Professional Development
One cause : one effect Many causes : one effect One cause : many effects Many causes : many effects
One or Many?
Causes 1 >1
1 Effects >1
What is the cause / effect?
Reasons for effects (results)
When you are writing critically, it is important to explain why you think something is true. You need to give reasons and explanations for any general statements you make. Example without reason or explanation: The death rate from cancer is increasing.
Reasons for effects (cont¶d)
We might want to ask why this is happening. We want to know the cause. ONE reason, or cause, is that: People are smoking more. The death rate from cancer is increasing is the effect. People are smoking more is the cause.
Notice how the cause and effect relationships are expressed below:
There are several factors to be taken into account when studying why some plants become weak or die. One reason is lack of water. Dryness in the soil causes the leaves to wilt, and may give rise to the death of the plant. On the other hand, too much water may result in the leaves drooping, or becoming yellow. While sunshine is necessary for plants, if it is too strong, the soil may be baked and the roots killed. However, if there is no light, the leaves will become pale and the stems thin. Consequently the plant may die.
Cause & effect relationships
Lack of water dryness in the soil leaves wilt death of plant. Too much water leaves become yellow death of plant. Too much hot sun baked soil roots killed death of plant. Lack of light pale leaves & thin stems death of plant.
In the meantime, war had broken out between the United States and Mexico. The main cause was a long standing dispute over where the southern boundary of Texas belonged. Americans were saying the boundary was along the Rio Grande River, and the Mexicans were insisting that the boundary belonged along the Nueces River.