BY:- PREETHISH GUHA

OUTLINE History Role Industrial robot D.O.F Robot configs. Kinematics Robot system Prog. languages Applications Workcell

€ Robotics is the study of the design , construction and use of robots. € Robot is coined from Czech word Robota .

€ Robota means labor.

€ Robots are considered as trademarks of science fictions

€ The word robot was first used in a play.

OUTLINE History Role Industrial robot D.O.F Robot configs. Kinematics Robot system Prog. languages Applications Workcell

€ WHAT IS ROBOT ? "A reprogrammable, multifunctionalmanipulator designed to move material, parts,tools, or specialized devices through various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks" . -Robot Institute of America, 1979
OR

A mechanical device which performs automated physical tasks, either according to direct human supervision, a pre-defined program, or a set of general guidelines using artificial intelligence techniques. - WikiPedia OR An automatic device that performs functions normally ascribed to humans or a machine in the form of a human. - Webster s Dictionary

€ 1495 , LEONARDO DA VINCI drew plans for a mechanical man . OUTLINE Introduction Role Industrial robot D.O.F Robot configs. Kinematics Robot system Prog. languages €1921 , a Czech writer KAREL CAPEK introduced the term robot in a play. Applications Workcell

OUTLINE Introduction Role Industrial robot D.O.F Robot configs. Kinematics Robot system Prog. languages Applications Workcell

€ 1956 , the first robot was made called unimate.

€ 1961 , unimate goes to GM automobile factory N.J, USA.

€ 1963 , first artificial robot controlled by a computer was designed.

€ 1974 , Asia s first robot IRB 6 , developed .

OUTLINE Introduction History Industrial robot D.O.F Robot configs. Kinematics Robot system Prog. languages Applications Workcell

€ KEY ROLE IN Automation Manufacturing Assembly operations Material handling € Industrial robotics offer numerous advantages over manual industrial labor or fixed automation including increased speed and the ability to function in harsh environments. Added flexibility and dexterity offered by industrial robotics help manufacturers get jobs done faster, while cutting costs .

OUTLINE Introduction History Industrial robot D.O.F Robot configs. Kinematics Robot system Prog. languages Applications Workcell

INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS
1400000 1200000 1000000 800000 600000 400000 200000 0 1990 1995 2000 2005 2007 2011

Operational stock of industrial robots 1973 to 2011 Source: World Robotics 2008 (IFR, 2008a).

OUTLINE Introduction History Role D.O.F Robot configs. Kinematics Robot system Prog. languages Applications Workcell

ISO 8373:1994: A manipulating industrial robot is an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpo se manipulator programmable in three or more axes which may be either fixed in place or mobile for use in industrial applications . OR A general-purpose, programmable machine possessing certain anthropomorphic (human-like) characteristics.

OUTLINE Introduction History Role Industrial robot Robot configs. Kinematics Robot system Prog. languages Applications Workcell

€Each joint, moveable axis, on the arm is considered a degree of freedom (DOF). € The number of different ways in which a robot arm can move .In a Three Dimensional (3-D) space there are six degrees of freedom. These consist of displacement along three perpendicular axes (X, Y and Z), and rotation about those same axes.

OUTLINE Introduction History Role Industrial robot Robot configs. Kinematics Robot system Prog. languages Applications Workcell

€ DOF in 3D space are
generally identified using the following nautical terms: Displacements Heave: Moving up and down Surge: Moving forward and backward Sway: Moving left and right Rotations Yaw: Turning left and right flight Roll: Tilting side to side Pitch: Tilting forward and backward.

OUTLINE Introduction History Role Industrial robot D.O.F Kinematics Robot system Prog. languages Applications Workcell

€ Prismatic joints (sliding joints)*P: ‡

Linear joint (L)

‡ Orthogonal joint (O) € Rotary joints *R: ‡ Rotational joint ( R) ‡ Twisting joint ( T) ‡ Revolving joint ( V)

OUTLINE Introduction History Role Industrial robot D.O.F Kinematics Robot system Prog. languages Applications Workcell

THERE ARE DIFFERENT TYPES OF ROBOT CONFIGURATIONS :€ CARTESIAN CONFIGURATION(PPP) €Robots with Cartesian configurations consists of links connected by linear joints (L). €A robot with 3 prismatic joints the axes consistent with a Cartesian coordinate system € Commonly used for: pick and place work assembly operations handling machine tools arc welding

OUTLINE Introduction History Role Industrial robot D.O.F Kinematics Robot system Prog. languages Applications Workcell

€ CYLINDRICAL CONFIGURATION(RPP) €Robots with cylindrical configuration have one rotary ( R) joint at the base and linear (L) joints succeeded to connect the links. €A robot with 2 prismatic joints and a rotary joint the axes consistent with a cylindrical coordinate system. €Commonly used for: handling at die-casting machines assembly operations handling machine tools spot welding

OUTLINE Introduction History Role Industrial robot D.O.F Kinematics Robot system Prog. languages Applications Workcell

€ POLAR CONFIGURATION (RRP) €Polar robots have a work space of spherical shape. Generally, the arm is connected to the base with a twisting (T) joint and rotatory (R) and linear (L) joints follow. €A robot with 1 prismatic joints and 2 rotary joint. €Commonly used for: Handling of heavy loads. Palletising

OUTLINE Introduction History Role Industrial robot D.O.F Kinematics Robot system Prog. languages Applications Workcell

€ JOINED ARM CONFIGURATION(RRR) € The jointed-arm is a combination of cylindrical and articulated configurations. €A robot with 3 rotary joints. €Commonly used for: ‡ Spot welding, ‡ Arc welding ,and ‡ Surface coating.

OUTLINE Introduction History Role Industrial robot D.O.F Kinematics Robot system Prog. languages Applications Workcell

€ SCARA CONFIGURATION(RRP) € Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm € A robot with at least 2 parallel rotary joints.

€ Commonly used for: pick and place work assembly operations

OUTLINE Introduction History Role Industrial robot D.O.F Robtot configs Robot system Prog. languages Applications Workcell

€ Robot kinematics is the study of the motion (kinematics) of robots. In a kinematic analysis the position, velocity and acceleration of all the links are calculated without considering the forces that cause this motion. €Robot kinematics are mainly of the following two types: - forward kinematics and - inverse kinematics € Forward kinematics is also known as direct kinematics. In forward kinematics, the length of each linkand the angle of each joint is given and we have to calculate the position of any point in the workvolume of the robot. In inverse kinematics, the length of each link and position of the point in workvolume is given and we have to calculate the angle of each joint.

OUTLINE Introduction History Role Industrial robot D.O.F Robtot configs Kinematics Prog. languages Applications Workcell

THERE ARE MAINLY FOLLOWING SYSTEM COMPONENTS ARE :€ Manipulator The robot manipulator can be divided into two sections, each with a different function: Arm and Body - The arm and body of a robot are used to move and position parts or tools within a work envelope. They are formed from three joints connected by large links. Wrist - The wrist is used to orient the parts or tools at the work location. It consists of two or three compact joints

OUTLINE Introduction History Role Industrial robot D.O.F Robtot configs Kinematics Prog. languages Applications Workcell

€ Actuator An actuator is a mechanism for activating process control equipment by use of pneumatic, hydraulic, or electronic signals. There are several types of actuators in robotic arms. -Synchronous -Asynchronous -AC Servo Motors -Pneumatic -Hydraulic

OUTLINE Introduction History Role Industrial robot D.O.F Robtot configs Kinematics Prog. languages Applications Workcell

€ End Effector End-effectors are attached to the end of the robot arm and function much like robotic hands. Robotic end effectors perform multiple applications. ‡ A variety of robotic end effectors exist, each suited for a specific task. Some examples include: grippers, welding guns, vacuum pumps, blowtorches, and drills.  End effectors are also known as: ‡Robotic accessories ‡Robotic peripherals ‡Robotic tools ‡End of arm tooling

OUTLINE Introduction History Role Industrial robot D.O.F Robtot configs Kinematics Prog. languages Applications Workcell

€ Controller The controller is the processing interface between the robot and its environment. It provides intelligence and feedback to the robot through the compilation of the sensor measurements. It also acts as a storage device, retaining the sensory information and inputted programs. The computation engine is generally able to process many tasks at one time and seamlessly changes calculations to account for sensory information. The controller includes the hardware that interfaces with the outside world. It stores the user interface, which is used to input various commands.

OUTLINE Introduction History Role Industrial robot D.O.F Robtot configs Kinematics Prog. languages Applications Workcell

€ Sensor Sensors are divided into two main categories: ‡ physical and ‡ logical. Physical sensors handle the raw processing of data. Logical sensors then extract data for modules to interpret. Robots utilized sensors in one of three ways: Proprioceptive Sensors Exteroceptive Sensors Exproprioceptive Sensors

OUTLINE Introduction History Role Industrial robot D.O.F Robtot configs Kinematics Robot system Applications Workcell

€MHI , the first programming language ,developed at MIT € WAVE, developed at Stanford €MINI ,developed at MIT €AL, developed at Stanford €VAL and VALII, developed at Unimation €AML ,developed by IBM €DCL ,developed by McDonnell €RAIL, developed by AUTOMATIX

OUTLINE Introduction History Role Industrial robot D.O.F Robtot configs Kinematics Robot system Prog. languages Workcell

€Palletizing and Depalletizing €Packaging €Machine Tending: Loading and Unloading €Sorting €Part Dipping €Different welding processes €Drilling €Fastening €Paint and Compound Spraying €Compound Dispensing €Inspection

OUTLINE Introduction History Role Industrial robot D.O.F Robtot configs Kinematics Robot system Prog. languages Workcell

OUTLINE Introduction History Role Industrial robot D.O.F Robtot configs Kinematics Robot system Prog. languages Application

€ The term workcell refers to a grouping of the robot and its peripheral equipment to assemble any of a large variety of products with little or no human intervention, driven by electronically designed data.

‡ Any queries?

‡ Its important to not to stop questioning as Curiousness leads to existence of intelligence . by Albert Einstein

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