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Wave Motion & Jibration in Continuous Media
Spring 2ôô5
Professor M. H. Sadd
Introduction to Finite Element Methods
eed for Computational Methods
· Solutions Using Either Strength of Materials or Theory of
Elasticity Are Normally Accomplished for Regions and
Loadings With Relatively Simple Geometry
· Many Applicaitons Involve Cases with Complex Shape.
Boundary Conditions and Material Behavior
· Therefore a Gap Exists Between What Is Needed in
Applications and What Can Be Solved by Analytical Closed
form Methods
· This Has Lead to the Development of Several
Numerical/Computational Schemes Including: Finite
Difference. Finite Element and Boundary Element Methods
Introduction to Finite Element Analvsis
The finite element method is a computational scheme to solve field problems in
engineering and science. The technique has very wide application. and has been used on
problems involving stress analvsis, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, diffusion, vibrations,
electrical and magnetic fields. etc. The fundamental concept involves dividing the body
under study into a finite number of pieces (subdomains) called elements (see Figure).
Particular assumptions are then made on the variation of the unknown dependent
variable(s) across each element using socalled interpolation or approximation functions.
This approximated variation is quantified in terms of solution values at special element
locations called nodes. Through this discretization process. the method sets up an
algebraic system of equations for unknown nodal values which approximate the
continuous solution. Because element size. shape and approximating scheme can be
varied to suit the problem. the method can accurately simulate solutions to problems of
complex geometry and loading and thus this technique has become a very useful and
practical tool.
Advantages of Finite Element Analvsis
 Models Bodies of Complex Shape
 Can Handle General Loading/Boundary Conditions
 Models Bodies Composed of Composite and Multiphase Materials
 Model is Easily Refined for Improved Accuracy by Varying
Element Size and Type (Approximation Scheme)
 Time Dependent and Dynamic Effects Can Be Included
 Can Handle a Variety Nonlinear Effects Including Material
Behavior. Large Deformations. Boundary Conditions. Etc.
asic Concept of the Finite Element Method
Any continuous solution field such as stress. displacement.
temperature. pressure. etc. can be approximated by a
discrete model composed of a set of piecewise continuous
functions defined over a finite number of subdomains.
Exact Analytical Solution
x
1
Approximate Piecewise
Linear Solution
x
1
neDimensional Temperature Distribution
1woDimensional Discretization
 1
 0.5
0
0. 5
1
1. 5
2
2. 5
3
1
1. 5
2
2. 5
3
3. 5
1
 3
 2
 1
0
1
2
x
v
:
Approximate Piecewise
Linear Representation
Discretization Concepts
x
1
Exact 1emperature Distribution, 1(x)
Finite Element Discretization
Linear Interpolation Model
(Four Elements)
Quadratic Interpolation Model
(1wo Elements)
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
3 1
3
1
4 1
4
1
5
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
4 1
5
Piecewise Linear Approximation
1
x
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
3
1
4
1
5
1
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5
Piecewise Quadratic Approximation
x
Temperature Continuous but with
Discontinuous Temperature Gradients
Temperature and Temperature Gradients
Continuous
Common 1vpes of Elements
neDimensional Elements
Line
Rods. Beams. Trusses. Frames
TwoDimensional Elements
Triangular. Quadrilateral
Plates. Shells. 2D Continua
ThreeDimensional Elements
Tetrahedral. Rectangular Prism (Brick)
3D Continua
Discretization Examples
neDimensional
Frame Elements
TwoDimensional
Triangular Elements
ThreeDimensional
Brick Elements
asic Steps in the Finite Element Method
1ime Independent Problems
 Domain Discretization
 Select Element Type (Shape and Approximation)
 Derive Element Equations (Variational and Energy Methods)
 Assemble Element Equations to Form Global System
[K]]U] ÷ ]F]
[K] ÷ Stiffness or Property Matrix
]U] ÷ Nodal Displacement Vector
]F] ÷ Nodal Force Vector
 Incorporate Boundary and Initial Conditions
 Solve Assembled System of Equations for Unknown Nodal
Displacements and Secondary Unknowns of Stress and Strain Values
Common Sources of Error in FEA
· Domain Approximation
· Element Interpolation/Approximation
· Numerical Integration Errors
(Including Spatial and Time Integration)
· Computer Errors (Roundff. Etc.. )
Measures of Accuracv in FEA
Accuracy
Error ÷ [(Exact Solution)(FEM Solution)[
Convergence
Limit of Error as:
Number of Elements (hconvergence)
or
Approximation rder (pconvergence)
Increases
Ideally. Error F as Number of Elements or
Approximation rder FC
1woDimensional Discretization Refinement
(Discretization with 228 Elements)
(Discretization with 912 Elements)
(Triangular Element)
(Node)



ne Dimensional Examples
Static Case
1 2
u
1
u
2
ar Element
Uniaxial Deformation of Bars
Using Strength of Materials Theory
eam Element
Deflection of Elastic Beams
Using EulerBernouli Theory
1 2
w
1
w
2
o
2
o
1
dx
du
a u
q cu au
dx
d
: ion SpeciIicat Condtions Boundary
0 ) (
: Equation al DiIIerenti
= +
) (
: ion SpeciIicat Condtions Boundary
) ( ) (
: Equation al DiIIerenti
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
dx
w d
b
dx
d
dx
w d
b
dx
dw
w
x f
dx
w d
b
dx
d
=
1wo Dimensional Examples
u
1
u
2
1
2
3
u
3
v
1
v
2
v
3
1
2
3
1riangular Element
ScalarValued. TwoDimensional
Field Problems
1riangular Element
Vector/TensorValued. Two
Dimensional Field Problems
x
n
n
x dn
d
x f
x
N
N
+
N
N
=
=
N
N
+
N
N
: ion SpeciIicat Condtions Boundary
) (
: Equation ial DiIIerent Example
2
2
2
2
x
x x
x
n
;
C
x
u
C n
x
;
u
C T
n
x
;
u
C n
;
C
x
u
C T
F
;
x
u
;
F
;
x
u
x
u
N
N
+
N
N
+
N
N
+
N
N
=
N
N
+
N
N
+
N
N
+
N
N
=
= +
N
N
+
N
N
N
N
4
+ \ u
= +
N
N
+
N
N
N
N
4
+ \ u
22 12 66
66 12 11
2
2
Conditons Boundary
0
) 1 ( 2
0
) 1 ( 2
ents Displacem oI Terms in Equations Field Elasticity
Development of Finite Element Equation
· The Finite Element Equation Must Incorporate the Appropriate Physics
of the Problem
· For Problems in Structural Solid Mechanics. the Appropriate Physics
Comes from Either Strength of Materials or Theory of Elasticity
· FEM Equations are Commonly Developed Using Direct. Jariational
Jirtual Work or Weighted Residual Methods
VariationalVirtual Work Method
Based on the concept of virtual displacements. leads to relations between internal and
external virtual work and to minimization of system potential energy for equilibrium
Weighted Residual Method
Starting with the governing differential equation. special mathematical operations
develop the ~weak form¨ that can be incorporated into a FEM equation. This
method is particularly suited for problems that have no variational statement. For
stress analysis problems. a RitzGalerkin WRM will yield a result identical to that
found by variational methods.
Direct Method
Based on physical reasoning and limited to simple cases. this method is
worth studying because it enhances physical understanding of the process
Simple Element Equation Example
Direct Stiffness Derivation
1
2
k
u
1
u
2
F
1
F
2
} ¦ } ¦ 
rm Matrix Fo in or
2 Node at m Equilibriu
1 Node at m Equilibriu
2
1
2
1
2 1 2
2 1 1
F u K
F
F
u
u
k k
k k
ku ku F
ku ku F
=
)
`
¦

´

=
)
`
¦

´

¦
¦
¦
+ = ÷
= ÷
Stiffness Matrix
Nodal Force Vector
Common Approximation Schemes
neDimensional Examples
Linear Quadratic
Cubic
Polynomial Approximation
Most often polynomials are used to construct approximation
functions for each element. Depending on the order of
approximation. different numbers of element parameters are
needed to construct the appropriate function.
Special Approximation
For some cases (e.g. infinite elements. crack or other singular
elements) the approximation function is chosen to have special
properties as determined from theoretical considerations
neDimensional ar Element
÷ o + + = o o
¦ ¦
O O
udJ f u P u P edJ
i i i i
} ¦  : Law Strain  Stress
} ¦  } ¦
 
) ( : Strain
} ¦   ) ( : ion Approximat
d
d d
d
e
dx
d
u x
dx
d
dx
du
e
u x u
k
k k
k
k k
= = o
= = o = =
= o =
¯
¯
÷ +
)
`
¦

´

=
¦ ¦
T T
i
i
T
T T
fdx A
P
P
dx A
0 0
  } ¦ } ¦ } ¦     } ¦ d d d d
¦ ¦
+ =
T
T
fdx A dx A
0 0
  } ¦ } ¦     P d
Vector ent Displacem Nodal } ¦
Vector Loading   } ¦
Matrix StiIIness      
0
0
=
)
`
¦

´

=
= +
)
`
¦

´

=
= =
¦
¦
i
i
T
i
i
T
u
u
fdx A
P
P
dx A K
d
F
} ¦ } ¦  F d K =
neDimensional ar Element
A ÷ Crosssectional Area
E ÷ Elastic Modulus
f(x) ÷ Distributed Loading
dJ u F dS u T dJ e
i
J
i
S
i
n
i ii
J
ii
t
o + o = o o
¦ ¦ ¦
Virtual Strain Energy ÷ Virtual Work Done by Surface and Body Forces
For neDimensional Case
¦ ¦
O O
o + + = o o udJ f u P u P edJ
i i i i
O
(i) (i)
Axial Deformation of an Elastic ar
1vpical ar Element
dx
du
A P
i
i
=
dx
du
A P
i
i
=
i
u
i
u
x
(Two Degrees of Freedom)
Linear Approximation Scheme
)
Vector ent Displacem Nodal } ¦
Matrix Function ion Approximat  
} ¦  1
) ( ) (
1
2
1
2
1
2 1
2 2 1 1
2 1
1 2
1
2 1 2
1 1
2 1
=
=
=
)
`
¦

´

¦
¦
¦
=
)
`
¦

´

o o =
o + o =
+
=
+ = ÷
+ =
=
÷ + =
d
d
nt Displaceme Elastic e Approximat
u
u
x
x
u
u
u
u x u x
u
x
u
x
x
u u
u u
a a u
a u
x a a u
x (local coordinate system)
(1) (2)
i
u
i
u
x
(1) (2)
u(x)
x
(1) (2)
o
1
(x) o
2
(x)
1
o
(x) Lagrange Interpolation Functions
Element Equation
Linear Approximation Scheme, Constant Properties
Vector ent Displacem Nodal } ¦
1
1
2
  } ¦
1 1
1 1
1 1
1
1
         
2
1
2
1
0
2
1
0
2
1
0 0
=
)
`
¦

´

=
)
`
¦

´

+
)
`
¦

´

=
)
`
¦

´

+
)
`
¦

´

= +
)
`
¦

´

=
¦
¦
¦
=
)
`
¦

´

)
`
¦

´

= = =
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
u
u
Af
P
P
dx
x
x
Af
P
P
fdx A
P
P
A
A dx A dx A K
o
o
T
T
T
d
F
)
`
¦

´

+
)
`
¦

´

=
)
`
¦

´

¦
¦
¦
÷ =
1
1
2 1 1
1 1
} ¦ } ¦ 
2
1
2
1
Af
P
P
u
u
A
o
F d K
Quadratic Approximation Scheme
) } ¦ 
) ( ) ( ) (
4 2
3
2
1
3 2 1
3 3 2 2 1 1
2
3 2 1 3
2
3 2 1 2
1 1
2
3 2 1
d
nt Displaceme Elastic e Approximat
=
)
`
¦

´

o o o =
o + o + o =
+ + =
+ + =
=
÷ + + =
u
u
u
u
u x u x u x u
a a a u
a
a a u
a u
x a x a a u
x
(1) (3)
1
u
3
u
(2)
2
u
u(x)
x
(1) (3)
(2)
x
(1) (3)
(2)
1
o
1
(x)
o
3
(x)
o
2
(x)
)
`
¦

´

=
)
`
¦

´

¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
3
2
1
3
2
1
7 8 1
8 16 8
1 8 7
3
F
F
F
u
u
u
A
Equation Element
Lagrange Interpolation Functions
Using atural or ormalized Coordinates
1 1 A A
(1) (2)
) 1 (
2
1
) 1 (
2
1
2
1
+ = o
= o
) 1 (
2
1
) 1 )( 1 (
) 1 (
2
1
3
2
1
+ = o
+ = o
= o
) 1 )(
3
1
)(
3
1
(
16
9
)
3
1
)( 1 )( 1 (
16
27
)
3
1
)( 1 )( 1 (
16
27
)
3
1
)(
3
1
)( 1 (
16
9
4
3
2
1
+ + = o
+ + = o
+ = o
+ = o
(1)
(2) (3)
(1) (2) (3) (4)

´

=
=
= o
i i
i i
i i
0
1
) (
Simple Example
P
A
1
,E
1
,L
1
A
2
,E
2
,L
2
(1) (3) (2)
1 2
)
`
¦

´

=
)
`
¦

´

¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
0 0 0 0
0 1 1
0 1 1
1 Element Equation Global
) 1 (
2
) 1 (
1
3
2
1
1
1 1
P
P
U
U
U
A
)
`
¦

´

=
)
`
¦

´

¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
) 2 (
2
) 2 (
1
3
2
1
2
2 2
0
1 1 0
1 1 0
0 0 0
2 Element Equation Global
P
P
U
U
U
A
)
`
¦

´

=
)
`
¦

´

+ =
)
`
¦

´

¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
+
3
2
1
) 2 (
2
) 2 (
1
) 1 (
2
) 1 (
1
3
2
1
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
2 2
1
1 1
1
1 1
1
1 1
1
1 1
0
0
Equation System Global Assembled
P
P
P
P
P P
P
U
U
U
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
0
Loading ed Distribut Zero Tae
= f
Simple Example Continued
P
A
1
,E
1
,L
1
A
2
,E
2
,L
2
(1) (3) (2)
1 2
0
0
Conditions Boundary
) 2 (
1
) 1 (
2
) 2 (
2
1
= +
=
=
P P
P P
U
)
`
¦

´

=
)
`
¦

´

¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
+
P
P
U
U
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
0
0
0
0
Equation System Global Reduced
) 1 (
1
3
2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
2 2
1
1 1
1
1 1
1
1 1
1
1 1
)
`
¦

´

=
)
`
¦

´

¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
+
P U
U
A
A
A
A
A
0
3
2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
2 2
1
1 1
A Properties
m For UniIor
)
`
¦

´

=
)
`
¦

´

¦
¦
¦
P U
U
A
0
1 1
1 2
3
2
P P
A
P
U
A
P
U = = = ÷
) 1 (
1 3 2
2
Solving
neDimensional eam Element
Deflection of an Elastic eam
2
2 4 2 3
1
1 2 1 1
2
2
2
4
2
2
2
3
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
1
dx
dw
u w u
dx
dw
u w u
dx
w d
"
dx
w d
dx
d
"
dx
w d
"
dx
w d
dx
d
"
= o = = = o = =
=
=
=
=
I ÷ Section Moment of Inertia
E ÷ Elastic Modulus
f(x) ÷ Distributed Loading
O
(1) (2)
1vpical eam Element
1
w
2
w
1
o
2
o
1
2
1
J
2
J
x
Virtual Strain Energy ÷ Virtual Work Done by Surface and Body Forces
÷ o + + + + = o o
¦ ¦
O O
wdJ f w " u " u " u " edJ
4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1
¦ ¦
+ + + + =
T
dJ f w " u " u " u " dx
0
4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1
0
  } ¦     d
1
(Four Degrees of Freedom)
eam Approximation Functions
To approximate deflection and slope at each
node requires approximation of the form
3
4
2
3 2 1
) ( x c x c x c c x w + + + =
Evaluating deflection and slope at each node
allows the determination of c
i
thus leading to
Functions ion Approximat Cubic Hermite the are where
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1
i
u x u x u x u x x w
+ + + =
eam Element Equation
¦ ¦
+ + + + =
T
dJ f w " u " u " u " dx
0
4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1
0
  } ¦     d
1
)
`
¦

´

=
4
3
2
1
} ¦
u
u
u
u
d
 
 
 
4 3 2 1
dx
d
dx
d
dx
d
dx
d
dx
d
= =
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
= =
¦
2 2
2 2
3
0
2 3 3
3 6 3 6
3 2 3
3 6 3 6
2
     
dx
K
1
)
`
¦

´

+
)
`
¦

´

=
)
`
¦

´

¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
f
"
"
"
"
u
u
u
u
6
6
12
2 3 3
3 6 3 6
3 2 3
3 6 3 6
2
4
3
2
1
4
3
2
1
2 2
2 2
3
)
`
¦

´

=
)
`
¦

´

=
¦ ¦
f
dx f dx f
T
6
6
12
 
0
4
3
2
1
0
FEA eam Problem
f
a b
UniIorm
)
`
¦

´

+
)
`
¦

´

=
)
`
¦

´

¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
0
0
0
0
6
6
12
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 / 2 / 3 / 1 / 3
0 0 / 3 / 6 / 3 / 6
0 0 / 1 / 3 / 2 / 3
0 0 / 3 / 6 / 3 / 6
2
) 1 (
4
) 1 (
3
) 1 (
2
) 1 (
1
6
5
4
3
2
1
2 2
2 3 2 3
2 2
2 3 2 3
"
"
"
"
a
a
fa
U
U
U
U
U
U
a a a a
a a a a
a a a a
a a a a
1 Element
)
`
¦

´

=
)
`
¦

´

¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
) 2 (
4
) 2 (
3
) 2 (
2
) 2 (
1
6
5
4
3
2
1
2 2
2 3 2 3
2 2
2 3 2 3
0
0
/ 2 / 3 / 1 / 3 0 0
/ 3 / 6 / 3 / 6 0 0
/ 1 / 3 / 2 / 3 0 0
/ 3 / 6 / 3 / 6 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
2
"
"
"
"
U
U
U
U
U
U
b b b b
b b b b
b b b b
b b b b
2 Element
(1) (3) (2)
1 2
FEA eam Problem
)
`
¦

´

+
+
+
)
`
¦

´

=
)
`
¦

´

¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
+
+
) 2 (
4
) 2 (
3
) 2 (
2
) 1 (
4
) 2 (
1
) 1 (
3
) 1 (
2
) 1 (
1
6
5
4
3
2
1
2 3
2
2 3 2 2 3 3
2
2 3 2 3
0
0
6
6
12
/ 2
/ 3 / 6
/ 1 / 3 / 2 / 2
/ 3 / 6 / 3 / 3 / 6 / 6
0 0 / 1 / 3 / 2
0 0 / 3 / 6 / 3 / 6
2
"
"
" "
" "
"
"
a
a
fa
U
U
U
U
U
U
a
a a
a a b a
a a b a b a
a a a
a a a a
System Assembled Global
0 0 0
) 2 (
4
) 2 (
3
) 1 (
1 2
) 1 (
1 1
= = = o = = = " " U w U
Conditions Boundary
0 0
) 2 (
2
) 1 (
4
) 2 (
1
) 1 (
3
= + = + " " " "
Conditions Matching
)
`
¦

´

+
)
`
¦

´

=
)
`
¦

´

¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
+
+
0
0
0
0
0
0
6
12
/ 2
/ 3 / 6
/ 1 / 3 / 2 / 2
/ 3 / 6 / 3 / 3 / 6 / 6
2
4
3
2
1
2 3
2
3 3 2 2 3 3
a fa
U
U
U
U
a
a a
a a b a
a a b a b a
System Reduced
Solve System Ior Primary Unnowns U
1
.U
2
.U
3
.U
4
Nodal Forces "
1
and "
2
Can Then Be Determined
(1) (3) (2)
1 2
Special Features of eam FEA
Analytical Solution Gives
Cubic DeIlection Curve
Analytical Solution Gives
Quartic DeIlection Curve
FEA Using Hermit Cubic Interpolation
Will Yield Results That Match Exactly
With Cubic Analytical Solutions
1russ Element
Generalization of Bar Element With Arbitrary rientation
x
v
k÷AE/L
o = o = cos sin c s
Frame Element
Generalization of Bar and Beam Element with Arbitrary rientation
O
(1) (2)
1
w
2
w
1
o
2
o
1
2
1
J
2
J
2
P
1
P
1
u
2
u
)
`
¦

´

=
)
`
¦

´

o
o
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
4
3
2
2
1
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
2 2
2 3 2 3
2 2
2 3 2 3
4 6
0
2 6
0
6 12
0
6 12
0
0 0 0 0
2 6
0
4 6
0
6 12
0
6 12
0
0 0 0 0
"
"
P
"
"
P
w
u
w
u
A
A
A
A
Element Equation Can Then Be Rotated to Accommodate Arbitrary Orientation
Some Standard FEA References
Bathe Finite Element Procedures in Engineering Analysis PrenticeHall 1982 1995
Beer G and Watson O Introduction to Finite and Boundary Element Methods for Engineers. ohn Wiley 1993
BicIord WB AFirst Course in the Finite Element Method Irwin 1990
Burnett DS Finite Element Analysis AddisonWesley 1987
Chandrupatla TR and Belegundu AD Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering PrenticeHall 2002
Coo RD Malus DS and Plesha ME Concepts and Applications of Finite Element Analysis 3
rd
Ed ohn Wiley
1989
Desai CS Elementary Finite Element Method PrenticeHall 1979
Fung YC and Tong P Classical and Computational Solid Mechanics World ScientiIic 2001
Grandin H Fundamentals of the Finite Element Method Macmillan 1986
Huebner H Thorton EA and Byrom TG The Finite Element Method for Engineers 3
rd
Ed ohn Wiley 1994
night CE The Finite Element Method in Mechanical Design PWSENT 1993
Logan DL AFirst Course in the Finite Element Method 2
nd
Ed PWS Engineering 1992
Moaveni S Finite Element Analysis  Theory and Application withANSYS. 2
nd
Ed Pearson Education 2003
Pepper DW and Heinrich C The Finite Element Method: Basic Concepts and Applications Hemisphere 1992
Pao YC AFirst Course in Finite Element Analysis Allyn and Bacon 1986
Rao SS Finite Element Method in Engineering 3
rd
Ed ButterworthHeinemann 1998
Reddy N An Introduction to the Finite Element Method McGrawHill 1993
Ross CTF Finite Element Methods in Engineering Science. PrenticeHall 1993
Stasa FL Applied Finite Element Analysis for Engineers Holt Rinehart and Winston 1985
Zieniewicz OC and Taylor RL The Finite Element Method Fourth Edition McGrawHill 1977 1989
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