. What do you understand by teaching and learning at HE? .How do they differ from that of other levels of education?

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Teaching defined from different perspectives.
y Idealists: Teaching as a process of transmitting/imparting knowledge y Pragmatists: Teaching as a process of facilitating individuals learning y Naturalists: Helping the individual develop the potentials s/he possesses Commonly: It can be understood as a process of facilitating individual s learning through motivation, coordination, guiding/directing the activities the learner performs and controlling/evaluating the learning results. It is a process of bringing about positive changes in a learner (Obanya, 1998).

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Learning seen from different perspectives in psychology
y Learning as a process of acquiring knowledge through the mental process. y It is developing the mental caliber of the individuals y Learning is a relatively permanent change/ modification of the behavior (acquisition of knowledge, the development of skills and formation of value systems) of the learner as a result of practice. y N.B It is an integral/fundamental process which occurs in the learners. It is a relatively permanent change in the behavior of the person/learning.
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apply what they have acquired (information) to solve problems. Learners use. Information processing. Receiving a stimulus to learn . 4 .Stages in how learning takes place y The motivation stage: . Selecting information from the env t by the sensory receptors y The acquisition stage: . retrieving/recovering and exploiting (from the short-term memory to the long-term memory) y The performance stage: .

3. who can think critically.Understanding HEIs What are HEIs? Are institutions that provide post secondary education and produce human resource. What is expected of them? 5 . 4. and involve in community services. 2. well informed /knowledgeable/versed and deeply motivated citizens. conduct research. They are aimed at educating students to become: 1. analyze problems of society.accept social responsibilities. look for solutions to the problems. apply 5.

y The teaching of human rights standards and education on the needs of y Determination of academic curriculum by the academic personnel. 6 . communities. and y New types of teaching-learning materials and evaluation techniques. creative and critical analysis. y The curricula should take into account the gender dimensions and other cross cutting issues. independent thinking and team work in multicultural contexts. historic and economic context of each country (Relevance).The curriculum and personnel in HEIs should respond to the following y Using new and appropriate methods. specific culture. y Competencies and abilities for communicating effectively. pedagogical and didactical approaches .

The learner and the learning situations in HEIs y Who are the students of higher education? (physically. mentally. 7 . The learner is assisted in becoming autonomous. The human resources in the institutions. lib. the curriculum. personally. Financial materials (operational allowance. physical resources (crm. y Example: y Learning is influenced by the teacher . psychologically. financially the learners). The roles of the teacher and the learner vary in this relationship. the learner is entirely dependent on what the instructor says or does. . . socially. morally. that is to say. the teacher can play the role of a guide. scholarships. research funds. training grants & others). y What does the learning situation include? of . audiovisual materials & others).lab.learner relationship. Material resources (teaching materials. the teacher can be a mere transmitter of knowledge. in being able to plan his/her learning. The political and social context (democracy vs dictatorship.. peace vs war).& workshops). On the other hand. . . He or she is then more of a "recipient" than a "learner". On the one hand. or a facilitator.

3. democracy and peace. 4. create and disseminate knowledge through research and provide relevant expertise. Help. To provide opportunity for HL learn throughout life. 5 Contribute to the development and improvement of education at all levels. social mobility. 8 . To educate qualified graduates and responsible citizens. 1. 2. including through the training of teachers. in a context of justice. sustainable development.Missions and Goals of HEIs in Eth. for indigenous capacity building. protect and enhance societal values by training young people in the values which form the basis of democratic citizenship. Giving learners an opportunity for individual dev t. y The core missions and values of HE are to contribute to the sustainable development and improvement of society as a whole. socially active participation. Advance. consolidation /strengthening of human rights.

cultural background. quality of preparation at secondary school level. i.sociological chaxs.HE Learners. teachers and school regulations. HE learners As the major actors/partners and responsible stakeholders in the renewal of HEIs Considering them is as one of the ways in responding to the relevance and quality of education Decision makers need to place the learners and their needs at the center of their concern. We need to consider their demographic.e. there is a period of transition which is characterized by more freedom from parents. affective. social. religious affiliation. Understanding them at entry level and provision of guidance and counseling service is priceless and invaluable here . (friendship and social linkage). -----physical. gradual and painless way. At this stage we need to take the learners through the changing process in a smooth. psychomotor. Teachers and Curriculum I. Behaviors that characterize secondary school level is over here. psychological characteristics (motivation and selfconcept). 9 . marital status and family background in planning lessons. intellectual/cognitive and their aspiration changes. emotional.

of family in which they were grown. self-concept or emotional traits. motivational level. social development. friendship patterns and linkages. Such students need remedial or tutorial classes to help them makeup the subjects/course in which they score less. independent activities. Moreover. attitude. But their secondary education might have endangered this. They can solve problems. think critically. work experience. 10 .Factors Affecting Learning at HEIs y Home background: Instructional language proficiency. create knowledge.. school setting and societal expectations. they are not in a position of the Tabula Rasa or empty vessel to be filled. y Selection/ admission criteria: When students below the expectation are allowed to admit. can carry group work. expectations. values. peer group influence. their earlier socialization has also contributed to their b/r. Therefore. residential area. They include intelligence. parental styles and no. political/religious orientations. cognitive dev t. y Impacts of prior experiences on the learner s learning: the learners here are in the state of Piagetian stage of formal operations in their cognitive development. Sociological factors include family background. y Psychosocial characteristics: Psychological factors are normally resident within the learners.

11 .Cont.

A commitment to work with and learn from colleagues y Intellectual curiosity/inquisitiveness y Master of his/her field of knowledge and its methods of inquiry y Respect for truth y Intellectual honesty/openness/integrity y Fundamental understanding of the learning process 12 .II. research and community service (outreach programs. A concern of students development 4. A commitment to scholarship 5. consultancy. An understanding of how students learn 3. extension service. General characteristics of HE Teachers Expectations: an exemplars in teaching.----). CBE. Good subject matter knowledge 2. Continuing reflection on professional practice 6. These are duties of HE teachers 1. service learning.

course requirements. include a relaxed manner. 13 .Some hints to enhance the profile of the teacher (as a teacher) y Giving clear explanations: Use concrete. body gesture and movement. relevant audio-visual aids Make clear presentation Effective speaking Effective nonverbal presentations use facial expressions. use proximity. encourage independent and original thought. use guest. panel discussion. and diagrams. provide opportunities for students talk. Promoting Rapport (having consultation hrs). relate the subject to current issues. etc. real life and relevant examples. for question Effective communication: prepare clear objective. examine controversial issues. avoid distracting mannerism. Promoting student interest (describe relevant personal exp. humor. reasonable evaluation. Openness to ideas: let students feel free. Use illustrations. present challenging and thought provoking ideas.) Demonstrate interest. etc. show interest in students ideas and work/performance. y y y y y y Present practical applications and experiences. be flexible in your thinking. use gaze/eye contact. graphs. talking with students. communicate objectives. and grading criteria.

For promotion: No research no promotion. rests largely on the plank of research activities. publish or perish 14 . y Research is important for HE teachers at least for three purposes: 1. methods of research) 3.Research profile be damned entreaty to academic of HE teachers To publish or perish or publish or y staff of higher education institutions. Ensures teacher s ability of advising students (making one self up-to-date to the theories. It enhances the quality of instruction 2.

Characteristics of a good researcher y Ability to identify problems y Ability to design an efficient method of solving the problem y Resourcefulness in implementing research plan y Objectivity y Honest y Perseverance y Willingness to collaborate with others y Ability to supervise others y Skills in writing winning grant proposal y Skills in reporting for publication 15 .

g. y Q2. State the chaxs needed for successful participation in community services. prepare checklist to evaluate the community service of yourself and your higher learning institution y Q3. --- HW.Community service y y y y Committee work and membership of the task force Delivery of public lectures Offering of services in one s specialized area Office holder of national societies e. How can this be improved 16 . y Q1. president/chairman of some professional org.

y Maintaining the quality of the curriculum is mandatory. innovative and follow interdisciplinary approach. entrepreneurships and relevance 17 .Curriculum dev t in HE y It must meet the needs of the work place (industry and business and other world of work) (Relevance and Validity aspect) y It has to stimulate the entrepreneurial skills of students. respond to market. y The importance of periodic review and evaluating curriculum in terms of its purpose. It has to be flexible.

Reasons for undertaking curriculum Development in HE y To improve what is taught y Filling the gap that currently exist in HE programs y Responding to the needs of society y Responding to research evidences 18 .

Cont. 19 .

Dev t in HE y The construction and revision of the existing syllabus for new or existing course y The inclusion of new dev ts in the field of study resulting from research and public declaration in to existing programs ( Civics and Ethical education. Entrepreneurship. 20 . etc.Practices of Curr. ICT).

Approaches in the theoretical basis for content selection in curr dev t y Topical approach: many topics based on knowledge and experience y Conceptual approach: Content clustering around some major or sub-concepts y Thematic approach: a combination of concepts y Modular approach: leads to competence of certain skills and more common in TVET 21 .

Some practical hints on course development and implementation y Provide basic information y Describe the prerequisite to the course y Give an over view of the course s purpose y State the general learning goals/objective y Clarify the conceptual structure used to organize the course y Describe the formats or activities of the course y Specify the textbooks and readings by authors and editions 22 .

Some practical hints cont d y Identify additional materials or equipment needed by the course y List assignments. and exams y State how students will be evaluated and how grades will be assigned y Discuss course policies y Inform students with special needs to contact you during office hours y Provide a course calendar of schedule y Estimate students workload 23 . term papers.

Learning and related Issues 1. 2006: 169). 24 . Strategies and Styles of Learning y The concept of learning styles refers to individual typical ways of processing information and seeking meaning (Parkay.

skills. Inductive task= to understand the present learners conception/idea of a topic 2.Learning Tasks y Learning tasks are open questions put to a small group who have all resources they need to respond.Implementation task= It invites learners to implement new concept. There are a number of learning tasks including: 1. knowledge 25 . Input task= Learners are expected to engage in new concepts or skills 3.

knowledge--. 26 .4.to their life and work 5. Integration task= application of the learned skills. Authentic learning tasks=Instruction here is organized around the whole task which are challenging.

= they require hrs beyond classroom period 4. Authentic tasks provide the opportunity to collaborate 27 .Authentic tasks are ill-defined. requiring students to define the tasks and sub-tasks needed to complete the activity= open to multiple interpretations 3. Authentic tasks have real-world relevance 2. 1.Useful guides to design research based authentic tasks in webbased learning environments. using a variety of resources 5. 1. Authentic tasks provide the opportunity for students to examine the task from different perspectives. Authentic tasks comprise complex tasks to be investigated by students over a sustained period of time.

Authentic tasks allow competing/challenging solutions and diversity of outcome 28 . Authentic tasks can be integrated and applied across different subject areas and lead beyond domain-specific outcomes 8. Authentic tasks create polished products valuable in their own right rather than as preparation for something else 10. Authentic tasks provide the opportunity to reflect 7.Useful guide cont d 6. Authentic tasks are seamlessly/effortlessly integrated with assessment 9.

Common Learning Theories
A. Behavioral learning theories

. emphasize observable changes in behavior that result from stimulus-response (S-R) sequence that begins and ends out side the individual leaner. . Learning is the product of design rather than accident =Planning as a decisive factor. . Learning is regarded as a conditioning/training process by which a person acquires a new response. . Motivation and rewards as important components of learning
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Common learning theories cont d
B. Social Learning Theories . Learning process is primarily social, and learning occurs through socialization. . Socialization occurs in a variety of settings and it continues throughout life. . Albert Bandura s (1997)

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Common learning theories cont d
C. Cognitive learning theory . It focuses on the mental processes people use as they acquire new knowledge and skills. . Unlike behavioral theories, which focus on observable behavior, cognitive theories focus on the unobservable processing, storage, and retrieval of information from the brain.(Rationalists )

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and Gestalt theorists maintain that wholeness is primary. Refers to how learners organize information into patterns and wholes. .Gestalt is a German term meaning Configuration or pattern . Gestalt-field view of learning . . Thus. obtaining an overview is often an important step to learning.y D. 32 . one should start with the total aspects of a learning situation and then more to particulars in light of the whole.

Theories of learning cont d
E. Constructivist Learning Theories

y Constructivist views of learning focus on how

learners make sense of new information, how they construct meaning based on what they already know. y According to constructivism, students develop new knowledge through a process of active constructivism. They do not passively receive or copy input from teachers or textbooks. Instead, they actively mediate it by trying to make sense of it and relate it to what they already know (or think they know) about the 33 topic (Good and Brophy, 2003).

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Aspects Behaviorist Cognitive Humanist Social leaning Constructiv ist

Learning theorists View of learning process Locus of learning Purpose of education Teacher s role Manifestatio n in adult learning
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Teaching as a Profession and Related issues
Q. What is a profession?
y Profession is a form of employment or occupation, which is respected in society as honorable, and is only possible for an educated person and after getting training in some special branch of knowledge (An Oxford Dictionary). y A profession is an occupation that provides a special service to the community based on accumulated knowledge, skills and wisdom. y It also controls the entry qualifications and work standards of the members. y Thus, one can understand it clearly a profession is an employment that demands an individual to pass through training.
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36 .

requires an extended period of preparation for entry. Involves an intellectual activity/ body of subject matter knowledge/ and system of skills. 5. yT 37 .Characteristics of a profession 1. It is practicable/practical. performs specific functions for personal and social purposes. 4. 3. 2. It is organized 6. It has literature and unique languages of its members.

Ensuring permanent membership in the profession and taking teaching as one s life-long career. y Teachers who decide to be permanent members of the profession can contribute better than those who are always ready to leave the profession. 7. 4. Commitment profession cont d Teaching as ato the ideal service of human kind rather than to personal gains. specialization and independence. Forming organization 6. 2. and the profession 38 . Meeting the admission qualifications (criteria) and keeping up-to date through in-service programs. A high level of intellectual energy. y Teachers have commitments to their students. 3. 5. Trying to get opportunities for advancement.1. Undergoing a relatively long-period of training to acquire the knowledge and skills. the home and the community.

Ensuring permanent membership in the 39 profession and taking teaching as one s life-long . 2. Commitment to the ideal service of human kind rather than to personal gains. 7. 3. Meeting the admission qualifications (criteria) and keeping up-to date through in-service programs. 5. 4. A high level of intellectual energy. Trying to get opportunities for advancement. specialization and independence. Undergoing a relatively long-period of training to acquire the knowledge and skills. Forming organization 6..

their employers. the profession. 40 . the home/parents and the community. y Every employee is expected to accomplish tasks the employer wants him/her perform in the organization faithfully and honestly with the required quality.Teachers Professional code of ethics y The teachers professional codes of ethics are related to their accountability/responsibility/commitment to their students.

y The personal factors are teacher s personality traits that affect students behaviors. material. Effectiveness is determined by concrete factors and personal qualities. time. y Thus. measurable and acquired issues which can be achieved through training. an effective teacher is the one who achieves his/her objectives with a minimum energy. specialized knowledge. finance. identifiable. y The personal factors are related to personal qualities which are more natural than acquired and are difficult to quantify. 41 .Unit II The Expected Quality of instructors y Effectiveness in teaching is seen in terms of achieving instructional objectives. y They include general knowledge. etc. The concrete factors are related to the basic. professional knowledge & skills.

Good personal treats of teachers y Good character y Respects truth. a person of words and actions y Remains being a student all through out his/her life y Has breadth of interest y Fairness and impartiality y Helpful and cooperative y Makes use of different methods of teaching and learning 42 .

reliable your activities.Skills and Qualitieswith students:Instructor of Effective a.confidentiality as appropriate. Have prior experience working with youth in alternative education settings. Ability of working . y Elevate or advance students who are doing well y Be flexible. y Demonstrate consistency in the classroom. Support them y Accept the students where they are y Have high expectations of students y Provide positive reinforcement. Maintain student. y Appreciate students individuality. Universality. y Help students set goals and support them in achieving them. . 43 . y Practice tough love. y Show respect for students and establish rapport with them.

listen well and remain open to questions.e. of humor. y Be available to students outside of class (i. Have a sense of patience. y Be non-judgmental. y Convey the ethical and the philosophical aspects of the discipline 44 . Demonstrate consistency.) y Live what you teach. y Have a strong sense of self. . Personality Characteristics . meet with individual students if needed.Skills and qualities of effective Instructors cont d B. caring and attentiveness. Lead by example and be a good role model. y Demonstrate empathy. be honest with students and have good personal boundaries. y Exhibit creativity and inquisitiveness. predictability and reliability.

Methods and Techniques of Teaching in HE 45 .Unit III Principles.

creating an environment to make instruction clear. readiness. which govern the roles of the teachers and students both inside and outside the classrooms. y They help teachers get sufficient information on issues related to motivation. y They help teachers perform their activities in specific directions and acceptable manners. and mechanisms of self learning. understandable.Definitions and Characteristics of Principles of Teaching y Principles of teaching are generalized statements about teaching activities. applicable and finally durable. 46 . ways and means of making students active participants. y They are used as regulators of what the teacher does.

Compulsory. space. money etc their teaching activities. materials.Characteristics of principles of teaching y y y Universal Essential .they make teachers effective in achieving the instructional objectives and efficient in the use of time. energy. Socially determined the principles are results of long years of observation of life activities and the observation of the principles of teaching in all instructional activities help teachers satisfy the demands of the society and meet the needs of the learners at all levels y 47 .

The principle of recognizing individual differences in teaching: y y y 48 . The principle of linking / connecting school learning activities to social life. The principle advocates making students verbalize of what they are learning in their own words. The principle of making instruction clear by using different instructional media that appeal to the different senses. The principle of verbalization/Voicing in instruction.The Main Principles of Teaching and their uses in Teaching y y The principle of planning lessons in line with the curriculum.

The principle of making lessons understandable / comprehensible/ 49 . The principle of integrating (coordinating) different subject areas. The principle of defining the objectives of the lesson.Principles cont d y y y y y The principle of uniting instruction with scientific findings and procedures. The principle of the leading role of the teacher and the independent activities of the learner.

y Starting from the whole and proceeding to the parts (specific) and the vice versa It is found out that perception is better when it is on whole objects than on specific parts (remember the gestalt psychology theory of learning) y Starting from the immediate and proceeding to the remote .Basic rules in presenting a lesson (The logical and psychological principles of teaching) y presenting lessons from the known and proceeding to the unknown. y Starting lessons from the simple and preceding to the complex y Presenting lessons from the easy and proceeding to the difficult y Starting from the concrete and proceeding to the abstract. 50 .

51 .Classification of methods of teaching A. Traditional Vs Modern Methods of teaching y Characteristics of the traditional method: The teacher: y conducts recitation (learning by heart or memorization by mechanical repetition) of what is to be learned. y is assumed to know all and source of knowledge. y gives lessons / tasks without involving students. y evaluates the performances of students by hearing the recitation / reproduction of what was learned. y motivates learning through warning of failure and punishment.

individualized instruction. The students participation in the teaching learning process. project work. Applications of what require making analysis. The methods enhance democratic teacher student relationships 52 . student s independent activities /study. etc. group discussion. They have activities that are based on the data collected. especially in planning. Encouragement and guidance in the activities are given instead of warning of failure and punishment. organizing and performing the different tasks under the guidance of their instructor(s) is very high. reasoning and forming generalization are learned in particular and new situations are common activities.Modern method of teaching Classification ofactively and develop skills and valuesd methods cont Attempts to involve the students y y y y y y y in addition to the acquisition of knowledge. Much attention is given to directing students efforts towards learning by doing rather than through memorization or recitation of the learned materials. The modern methods include problem solving.

Student s independent work methods (self-planning. project and problem solving methods.). teacher students conversation. teacher s presentation methods (autocratic nature of a teacher). 2. group discussion --. students learn according to their pace .Method cont d The classifications of methods of teaching also include classifying methods of teaching as: 1. 53 . self-responsibility & self action.) The methods include the assignment. methods ( question answer format.. and 3.

teacher centered and active methods. 54 .Classification of methods contin d y Other classifications put the different methods as student centered.

55 .y Discuss on the role of an instructor in students independent study.

which is identified as a method of explanation or clarification of contents to students verbally. It is usually a one-way communication where a teacher narrates or presents on social or natural events. 56 . It is a method where the teacher is more active and students are made passive. Applications. processes. etc by citing authorities in the field of the subject but not students. procedures.The Major Methods of Teaching: Mechanism. Advantages and Disadvantages y The Lecture Method: It is the oldest teaching method.

advantages and disadvantages of lecture method.Lecture method cont d y Discuss the types(modified/formal and unmodfied/informal). application. 57 .

and advantages and disadvantages of the demonstration method. components in (explanation. classification (formal and informal). students performance. nature. demonstration. and evaluation).Demonstration Method y Discuss on the definition. 58 . instructor s supervision.

59 . make a review. It can be applied when the objective of the lesson is to bring about changes in the attitudes of the learners.The group discussion method y In-group discussions. One can use it whenever there is the need for obtaining feedback about the learners level of understanding and ability to apply the already acquired knowledge. students usually discuss on a topic. y The method is particularly suitable to contents that involve matters of opinion. clarify points. apply their earlier knowledge and skills and reinforce their learning. make corrections.

not from the teachers. a principle or a policy.When should a teacher use the group discussion method? y y y y When the teacher expects the ideas of students to analyze a problem and decide on a plan of action. When the teacher wants to make his/her students to get an understanding of a program. 60 . When the teacher feels that there is the need to expand the total amount of information obtained in the class by drawing out suggestions and opinions from many students. When the teacher wants to incorporate the discussion method as an essential part of most other methods.

Forms of Group Discussions The different learning groups can be classified as: y Buzz group y Panel discussion group y Seminar group and y Brain storming group 61 .

Then.The buzz group Discussion It is a discussion situation whereby the class students are divided into small groups of three to six students for a brief discussion. A Buzz group discussion is necessary when: y it is difficult to get a class start to discuss in a larger group. y y teachers want some suggestion from the entire class when the teachers want to make class action to be based on the recommendations from all. students seem to be getting tired or bored. the whole class later reforms for reporting the results. 62 y y . students hesitate to make critical comments in a large group.

telling them that there are x minutes for the discussion. one must be sure that the students have understood it. for a buzz group session is always a brief discussion. Summarize the main points on the chalkboard. a few minutes before the time is up. 8. 6. possibly 5 to 10 minutes. 5. the teacher must do the following 1. so that they face each other. the second. Call on the other secretaries requesting them to mention only new points which were not brought out by the first. But don t let it be too long. announce to all groups. 4. 7.Dividing the whole class into smaller groups of three to six students. Make the task simple and just one question. arranging their seats in a circle. If it is possible write it on the chalkboard. 2.telling the students the question for discussion. etc. If there is an extension of time. calling the group back together again and asking the secretary from the first group to report. telling the students the amount of time they will have for discussion. 63 . It may become a time consuming and boring if you allow all the groups present all their findings. 3. observing the groups and giving help to anyone who doesn t seem to understand the procedure. asking them elect a chair person and a secretary.Procedures on Conducting Buzz group Discuss y To make effective use of a buzz group discussion.

The topic for discussion may involve different people from different discipline. The panel members could be an educator. More often the teacher who has invited the panel members act as a chairperson. etc. It must be clear that the audience have no opportunity to express their views. The audience s questions will be addressed to the panel members through the chairperson before they come to the panel discussion. A panel discussion group has a chairperson. They participate as listeners. a social worker. and audience. 64 . panel members. an economists. The students may raise additional questions.The Panel Group Discussion y y y y y y y Panel group discussion is a discussion between a group of three to six people who have a special knowledge and interest in the topic to be discussed. Panel discussion shouldn t last more than an hour.

the background of the learners. y The chairperson provides opportunities for all panel members to express their views and he/she summarizes the points made by the speakers.In panel discussion the panel chairperson has the following responsibilities. 65 . y The chairperson gives an introduction. the names and qualifications of the panel members and the time limits of the discussion. which should include the topic and. He/she briefs them about the purpose of the panel discussion. and some important points. y The chairperson (teacher) contacts members of the panel before the meeting. which need to be covered about the topic during discussion. the purpose of the discussion. y The chairperson presents questions prepared with the help of the students to the panel on the topic.

It is a method where the discussion will be conducted after the presentation. The advantage is the involvement of students in the discussion.Seminar Group Discussion y y y A discussion after a student or group of students is made to prepare original paper(s) on different topic(s) and is made to present it/them. They learn how to listen to what others talk and express their own ideas when they are given the opportunity. The method is common in teaching at higher learning institutions where the students are more matured than in the lower grades. 66 .

the wilder/natural/unusual the ideas the better. unusual ideas are encouraged. Thus. Because the greater the number of ideas the greater likelihood of devising solutions to problems.The Brainstorming Session / Group Discussion y A discussion session by the whole group of a class to forward solution to a problem creatively.e..The purpose of the discussion is simply to elicit a number of ideas about and responses to a problem. i. Thus. 67 y y y y y . Later a judging committee screens these ideas. no one is allowed to make a negative remark. It is a conference technique whereby a group seeks as many answers to a problem posed as possible by collecting all the ideas contributed spontaneously by its members. The basic rules are that: criticism is forbidden and adverse judgments of ideas must be with held until late. In the brainstorming session. quantity is wanted. there are four basic rules to be observed. free wheeling is accepted. participants should suggest how the ideas of others can be improved or how two or more ideas can be synthesized. In addition to contributing ideas of their own.

y In discussions different views and opinions are forwarded. Students develop their communication skills. When the response is erroneous or inappropriate. group discussion enhances personal growth and competence. y It provides the possibility of constant feedback between the teacher and the students. y As it is fewer teachers centered. This enables students to comprehend an issue from different angles. professional attitude and intellectual abilities. immediate modification can be introduced and justified y It helps students to learn and function efficiently in a group setting. it allows students a chance to develop their ideas. 68 . y It exposes students to valuable experiences which develop their skills of listening and speaking (communication skills) y It gives the students an opportunity to analyze and synthesize facts at a higher intellectual development. y In general.Discuss on the advantage and the disadvantages of disussion method The group discussion method as a two-way communication has the following advantages.

Limitations of Discussion Method of the discussion method are related to y The shortcomings preparation and presentation group discussions have to be planned properly before the discussions. it consumes time unnecessarily. Thus. If group discussion is not well planned and directed. the group discussion method becomes productive if the teachers plan and conduct it properly 69 . Only few students may dominate the situation.

It also provides opportunities to see oneself. It brings theory to life and teaches that one s perception of a situation is 70 not always like others. Serves as a means for changing attitudes. It is experiential leaning It involves observation. discussion and analysis It is learning through entertainment It involves the skills of dealing with other people and helps in understanding students feelings and reactions. The instructor and the student in the class serve as observer and critics. and developing confidence.Role playing Method y It is presented in front of observers. It brings reality to classrooms and it does so dramatically and convincingly (solves the problem of time and space). y Role playing method is unrehearsed/spontaneous/unprepared y y y y y y y dramatization in which the players attempt to take situation clear to themselves and to the audience by playing the role of participants in the situation. .

Shortcomings of role playing y Loss and expense which would result from practicing in real-life situation y Students may misinterpret it and emphasize its entertainment value than that of its educative value. 71 .

convergent and divergent or factual and problem solving (heuristic)question methods. which is used with large groups of students. y It is a key technique of teaching because of its several contributions in teaching and learning. 72 . y The types could be content and process.The Questioning and Answer method y As a method. it is an informal assessment technique. lower order and higher order.

y Make all students actively participant. and redirection. y Use pause /wait time effectively between y Be active in accepting students responses in positive manner. y Give enough time to think over and must demand complete answers. 73 . y State the questions before naming a student to respond. y Paraphrase students responses but not answering one s own questions. rephrasing. y Using the techniques of paraphrasing. y Use praise and other encouragement. y Listen to the given answer carefully and evaluate it. In oral questioning.To make the questioning and answer method effective follow the points below y Formulate clear and precise questions y Adapt the questions to the students level of maturity and capacity.

etc. y It is a co-operative study where students are grouped and are made to produce tangible product.The project method y It is a method where students are usually given an individual topic for an in depth analysis. It is done with relatively little direct interaction with the teachers y The projects could be on construction of model houses. They often have to work independently. models. rocks. There are a lot of project types. do a kind of research and report either in writing or verbally to a group. sample products. growing crops. plants. y The project could involve a group of students working together on different aspect of the same problem. cultural materials. seeds. collection of insects. preparation of food. 74 .

3. Enhancing co-operation it should allow students to think and plan independently and co-operatively.It must be capable of correlating different subjects and practical activities of life. 75 .projects should not unnecessarily tax energy and money of students. 5. It must fulfill a long-standing need. Challenging .the practical aim of the project must be identified. Rich in experience . Useful .Specific criteria to make projects useful 1. 6. Timely Environmental and seasonal factors need to be considered: 2. Economical . There should be optimum use of the time. 4. The learning experiences in a project must be capable of being applied in life. The project (s) should be implemented in such a way that the students are kept active both physically as well as mentally.project should neither be too simple and easy nor too long and difficult.

mindedness.solving. and makes students to get joy and learn in a natural way. It stresses problem . it discourages memorization. etc. resource fullness. thinking and reasoning. open. independence. it provides freedom to work enthusiastically on self-chosen projects. it solves disciplinary problems for students don t get time to involve in anti-social acts. it makes learning durable. it provided sufficient opportunities to the students to work cooperatively for common purpose. it provides situation to create unity of different subjects. 76 . it gives satisfaction and happiness to students. it cultivates virtues like tolerances.The advantages of project method y it provides a conducive environment for learning through practice and y y y y y y y y independently.

77 . 7. It is difficult to identify the share of work of individual members of the group if it is a group project. They may take long to complete the work. 5. A project method is a time-consuming this is so for students are left to work on their projects by themselves. 3. It is very expensive in terms of getting financial and materials required. 2. It requires highly trained teachers who are well rounded in many fields of study. Over use of a group project method creates a dependency of an individual on a group.Limitations of project Method 1. 4. The materials required for project method may not be available easily and cheaply.

planned and purposeful effort to arrive at some solutions y It is the combination of many methods where trial and error approach is applied y It requires self directed learning. y Learners make their own discoveries y It helps students develop their reasoning power y It includes inquiry and project method. 78 .The Problem Solving Method y Conscious.

Steps in the use of problem solving method 1. Drawing conclusions on the basis of findings 6. Identifying and defining the problem. 79 . 3. 5. Make a clear conception of the problem and state it in a manner that it leads to a solution. Making analysis of data collected. Formulating a hypothesis /basic questions to answer the questions.Applying the findings (results). Collecting and organizing the data and information 4. 2.

2.Other Important Methods y The field trip method y The student Independent study method y Team teaching method (Hierarchical team and Synergetic team Organization of team: 1. Ad-hoc team approach 80 . The unit specialist team approach (the same field but specialized in different subjects ). The differentiated team approach (diversified discipline) 3.

provides a flexible class size and help to provide guidance for the 81 learners as well as inexperienced teachers. 3. 4. helps teachers to evaluate the work of one another. provides opportunities for the students to get better knowledge. to improve their own teaching and instruction 8. 5. develops a strong sense of involvement and responsibility among students. 2. provides opportunities for the development of human relations which are essential for social adjustment. helps to make lessons fit to the needs of the learners and maintain classroom discipline. 7. 6. etc. .Advantages of team teaching Team teaching method provides the following advantages. staff. make proper use of resources. gives adequate opportunities to the students for free discussion/expression. stimulates discussion among teachers who are jointly responsible for a group of students. Team teachi 1.. etc.

y Active learning "derives from two basic assumptions: (1) that learning is by nature an active endeavor and (2) that different people learn in different ways" (Meyers and Jones.Active learning y It refers to techniques where students do more than simply listen to a lecture. Students are DOING something including discovering. 82 . 1993). Research shows greater learning when students engage in active learning. and applying information. processing.

Active Learning Techniques cont d y The following active learning techniques can be used in small and large classes. it is up to the teacher to choose the appropriate active learning techniques for the concerned topic) 83 . (But. and with all levels of students in any discipline.

84 . an original example to develop. Finally. Then have them discuss their ideas for 3-5 minutes with the student sitting next to them (pair). Have them work on this 2-5 minutes alone (think).1. Think-Pair-Share Give students a task such as a question or problem to solve. ask or choose student pairs to share their ideas with the whole class (share). etc.

2. y They choose a leader and a scribe (note-taker). These work is best in small to medium size classes. you assign students to heterogeneous groups of 3-6 students. graded or not. student preparation for the CLG has been required earlier (reading or homework). Often. short-term or long-term. 85 . Collaborative learning groups y These may be formal or informal. Generally. The group produces a group answer or paper or project. They are given a task to work on together.

3. other students volunteer to answer them. 86 . have the students do the work. illustrating and applying difficult material or concepts. y For the second half of the review session. and to try to answer a question raised by another student. the whole class works together. Student-led review sessions y Instead of the traditional instructor-led review session. y Students can also practice discussing. Students may ask questions. y Each student is to ask at least one question related to the material he or she doesn't understand. or drafting exam questions.

Games y Games such as jeopardy and crossword puzzles can be adapted to course material and used for review.4. or for exams. small group or full class levels. for assignments. 87 . for example. y There are now some computer programs. to help you create crossword puzzles. y They can be used at the individual.

Videos should be relatively short (5-20 minutes). have them work alone or in pairs to answer critical questions. this will help them pay attention ( to analyze the speech of individuals). y Prepare students ahead of time with reaction or discussion questions or a list of ideas on which to focus.5. or apply a theory. Analysis or reactions to videos y Videos offer an alternative presentation mode for course material. y After the video. 88 . write a "review" or reaction.

critically. 89 . graded or not. y Some faculty members ask students their personal view on an issue and then make them argue the opposite position.6. individual or group. They allow students the opportunity to take a thesis or position and gather data and logic to support that view. etc. y Debates also give students experience with verbal presentations. Student debates y These can be formal or informal.

y This technique helps students actively process material. gives them a better understanding of the difficulties of writing reliable and valid exam questions. and gives them practice for the exam. Student generated exam questions y This can be used for review or for the actual exam.7. 90 . helps them review material.

91 .8. y Either way. you may be able to have them collect data during class time (observe some situation or give out some short surveys) or you may have them doing this as part of an outside-of-class project. Mini-research proposals or projects. In some situations. have students present their research in a class research symposium similar to what we do at professional meetings. a class research symposium y Have the students work on designing a research study on a topic from the class. Invite other faculty and students.

y They can work as individuals or in groups or do this as a think-pair-share. y Have students discuss and analyze the case. Consider combining this with a brief in-class writing assignment. Analyze case studies y Bring in case studies for students to read (for example. and theory from the class. I will put a case example of sexual harassment on an overhead). data.9. applying concepts. 92 .

sexual harassment against women or men) they observe. y Require a brief critical reflection or analysis of each entry as well. in my gender class. students must record instances of sex inequality (sex discriminations. in or outside of class). 93 . Keeping journals or logs y Have students make journal or log entries (keep records) periodically (on paper or computer. sexism. For example.10. They then discuss this instance applying course terms and theories. Be aware of ethical issues if you ask students to record and analyze personal events or issues.

y Students should include articles with relevant research.11. 94 . Write and produce a newsletter y Have small groups of students produce a brief newsletter on a specific topic related to class. post information on upcoming related public events. y Share these with faculty and students in related courses or in the major. and so on.

95 .12. between concepts. with connecting phrases on the lines. once or repeated as students acquire new information and perspectives. discussed. and can be shared. and the relationships between concepts. and critiqued. y They draw circles containing concepts and lines. y These can be done individually or in groups. Concept mapping y Here students create visual representations of models. ideas.

Unit 5: Classroom Organization and Management of the instructional activities in higher education Definitions and purposes of classroom organization What is classroom organization? Classroom organization is a deliberate creation of the learning environment by considering the instructional objectives and the specific activities to be done by each student to achieve the desired end results. y 1: y 96 .

Crm orgorganization as a conscious cont d y Classroom arrangement of the classroom in its totality to achieve the instructional objectives can be seen in terms of: A. Patterns for arranging participants (small group versus whole class presentation). Rules of appropriateness 97 . C. B. Resources used or resources of information.

The advantages y it appears to be very convent for formal teaching of a lot of students in one class. y it makes the management of students discipline easy through row monitors 98 . y it makes the blackboard in front of all students and becomes easy and accessible to the teacher and the writing can be seen easily by all students. y it makes easy to move between rows and orderly distribution and collection of instructional materials.The major patterns of the classroom seating arrangement include: rows facing the teacher and the y Making students sit in blackboard (row-and column).

etc. demonstrations. y it is not convenient to practice different methods of teaching such as small group discussions. 99 .Raw-and column cont d The disadvantages include that: y the student at the back side cannot see the work or practice of student in the front side. y it is difficult to the teacher to evaluate each student s work in the classroom.

At all times. The leadership should rotate.2. there must be some one who acts as a leader. It is very much convenient for buzzgroup discussions. Grouping can be done randomly or by considering the abilities or compatibility of group members. Cluster seating pattern y The cluster pattern arrangement is characterized by the formation of little clusters of students in different positions in the classroom. y In cluster grouping. 100 . the size of each group should not be more than six members.

y Movement from one cluster to another is not too restricted. y It makes the management of the classroom discipline easy when there is the need for students to work in group or solve problems together.The cluster seating pattern provides the following advantages: y It makes students to communicate easily with each other. y It is easier for students to work as a team and to help each other as peers. Leadership and co-operation are two important elements of classroom relationship which result from this kind of seating arrangement. 101 . y The arrangement is not convenient to teach large class students and it is time consuming.

This arrangement provides the following advantages: y It can be used when the lesson entails a lot of discussion. 102 . y It enables students to consult with each other. half way along the diameter. y It enables the teacher to check every member easily and help.The Horse Shoe Pattern Arrangement y An arrangement where the teacher sits in the center. y It is easy to rearrange the group without wasting time.

There is usually no group leader in this arrangement. It can be round or square. y 103 . It can be placed at the center for all to see and comment upon. Its advantages include that: y it is an arrangement convenient when there is anything to be recorded or to be listened on tape. Unlike the horse shoe arrangement. y it is useful when there is just one object to be used as display for a lesson. the authority of the teacher is completely decentralized and formal leadership roles are played down considerably.The Round table pattern Arrangement y It is a good arrangement for discussion lessons.

104 .

The instructional objectives and the activities to be done will dictate it. classroom organization is a prerequisite to achieve objectives easily. money and materials will be wasted. classroom resources for instruction differs from time to time and activity to activity.Conclusion In general. Students may involve in some kinds of misbehaviors. students. Some activities demand larger space to move freely while others require silent seat works. 105 . y Thus. energy. the activities and the whole class for the required task resources such as time. classroom organization as an arrangement of activities. Some require the use of different instructional materials with a maximum care while some don t need materials at all. if the teacher fails to organize the students. Some demand talking loudly while others need no noise.

106 .

y It requires careful planning and providing students with pleasant and supportive climate for learning. It is a process of establishing and maintaining order.Definition of CRM Mngt y Classroom management is a process of organizing and conducting a class so as to make instruction effective and efficient. creating interests and desires to learn and achieve. 107 . laboratory classes allow students for a great amount of conversation and movement and lecture sessions require quiet attention and purposeful conversation. For instance. establishing control. avoiding disciplinary disturbances and promoting effective students learning. y Effective classroom management depends on the nature of the task at hand. It is a process of managing the teaching and learning activities to get maximum students learning.

lesson contents. organizing a learning environment. y Conducting the class. materials. setting rules. materials. It demands the ability and skills to use the selected methods. etc. methods of teaching. motivating and guiding students. pacing. Preparation of one s lesson by identifying the instructional objectives.Effective classroom management requires: y Good planning. 108 . appropriate styles. y Monitoring: It is a process of maintaining classroom order or discipline by using different approaches and techniques. etc.

Classroom management aims at: y promoting an environment (physical and emotional) to be conducive to effective learning.Purposes and Areas of Classroom Management Effective classroom management helps in the advancement to the fulfillment of the objective of teaching and facilitates learning. and y ensuring the active and meaningful engagement of students to the learning task at hand. y securing the support and co-operation of students in classroom activities. 109 . y guaranteeing class time to be used for learning effectively.

the teacher s personality 110 . the facilities / conditions of the school. the nature of the contents to be taught. c. the ability. and e. experience. maturity level. Contents of the lesson(s) B. the instructional objectives. needs and interests of the learners. b.Areas of Classroom Management Classroom management involves managing: A. Methods of teaching (the ability to select the methods and apply them in concrete situation) Methods of teaching are selected by considering: a. d.

etc. ideas and questions y responding to students questions. 111 . y reinforcing students activities. y considering individual differences and accommodating them. y applying the major principles of teaching.y presenting the lesson by making students active participants. divergent (multiple responses questions) and commenting. y accepting students feelings. y the use of appropriate questioning techniques that involve students in applying their earlier knowledge and skills such as making the questions convergent (factual nature).

The time management involves: y distributing the time to the different activities. Time allocated to a given lesson. y making appropriate decision on the right time to make students active participant or involve them in doing individual seat works or in group activities y fixing the time for questions in the middle or at the end of the lesson. y displaying teaching aids at the right time. y The different activities of a teacher and students are done within the given time.C. All teachers are expected to manage their time properly. 112 . y keeping one s pace of presentation.

y making the classroom hold enough seats and other resources 113 . Materials and space. The management includes: y the use of the appropriate instructional materials / teaching aids. y the arrangement of materials in their proper order. y the management of students seat. y the application of the rules in the use of the chalkboard.D. Teachers at all levels are expected to manage the materials and spaces set for the instructional activities.

114 . etc. y creating mechanisms to identify individual differences and accommodating them. managing students behavior and their social relationships through a democratic way It requires: y creating conditions for students good interpersonal relations. y preparing the classroom atmosphere for cooperation. mutual help and concern to each other as opposed to conflicting conditions.E.

Poor teaching 2. 6. ineffective style of presentation. Teacher related causes 1. 8. failure to use appropriate teaching aids (suitable audio-visuals) 5. failure to structure one s lessons and present them in steps. failure to enforce the rules set 115 . lack of planning and preparation. 7. 4. 3.Causes of classroom misbehavior 1. failure to set the right task. failure to involve students in the instructional activities and failure to apply the major principles of teaching.

Lack of interest in a particular subject Dislike to a teacher or hostility towards a teacher.Student related causes Antipathy to school or disinterest in learning in general. Ignorance of the classroom rules. Attention seeking. 116 .

y unsettled or disruptive home environment y Unpleasant peer relations. y Emotional upset y Bad physical condition 117 .

118 . laboratories the workshops and fields: y Conflicting rules of the school and the home. y the class size.School Environment Related Causes y The absence of sufficient materials for the classes.

y utilizing mild desist. The Authoritarian Classroom Management Approach y The use of controlling strategies.Approaches and Techniques to Maintain Classroom Discipline A. y utilizing proximity control. requesting students to stop misbehaving. The approach offers five strategies that the teacher might wish to include in his/her repertoire of managerial strategies They are: y establishing and enforcing rules. y issuing commands. directives and orders. The major goal of the teacher is just to control students behavior by any mechanism. and y utilizing isolation and exclusion y Establishing and enforcing rules 119 .

it is a process of controlling student behavior. y The teacher forces the students to behave according to the teacher s dictates. y Unlike the authoritarian approach (which stresses the use of humane teacher behavior) the intimidation approach emphasizes the use of intimidating teacher behaviors harsh forms of punishment such as sarcasm/criticism. coercion.The Intimidation/ threatening Classroom Management Approach y Like the authoritarian approach.B. threats. ridicule/scorn. 120 . force and disapproval.

3. The Permissive Classroom Management Approach

y This approach maximizes students freedom. y The major theme of it is that the teacher should

allow students to do what they want whenever and whatever they want. y The role of the teacher is to promote the freedom of students and thereby foster their natural development. y It helps students develop self directness, selfdiscipline and self responsibility if students are made free physically and psychologically.
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4. The Cookbook Classroom Management Approach

y It provides descriptions of lists of things a teacher

should or should not do when he/she is confronted with various classroom management problems. Sample of lists of dos and don ts are given as follows: y always reprimand and a pupil in private; y never raise your voice when admonishing/giving a warning students y always be firm and fair when dealing with students; y Never play favorites when rewarding students etc. 122

5. The Instructional Classroom Management Approach
y This is an approach, which is to be done based on the contention that carefully designed and implemented instruction will prevent problems. The approach argues that effective management is the result of high quality instructional planning. Thus, the teacher needs to plan his/her lesson by considering the needs, interests, etc of students. It plays both preventing and solving managerial problems. However, well designed and implemented instructional activities contribute more to prevention than to solving problems that have already occurred in a classroom. y Advocates to this approach suggest that the teacher should consider the following instructional managerial strategies:

i. providing interesting, relevant and appropriate curriculum and instruction;

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y utilizing interest boosting mechanisms. y planning and modifying the classroom environment. and y restructuring the situation 124 .y employing effective movement management. y giving clear directions. y providing for environmental changes. y establishing classroom routines.

Thus. stems from positive interpersonal relationships. .6. the nature and behavior of the classroom group are viewed as having significant effects on learning. Obviously. even though learning is seen as an individual process. y Therefore. It strongly assumes that instruction takes place within a group context. At this point the role of the teacher is to foster the development 125 and operation of an effective classroom group. Creating a Positive Social Emotional Climate in the Classroom y It is an approach. this is an approach that conceives the classroom as a social system in which group processes are of major importance. which. which assumes that learning is maximized in a positive classroom climate. in turn. both teacher student and student student relationships can be easily achieved if the teacher creates a favorable and friendly classroom atmosphere.

The Preventive Techniques y Disciplining: y The Provision of Freedom. y Sharing Responsibilities y The Provision of Incentives y Establishing and maintaining good Interpersonal Relationships y Making Effective / Good Teaching y Co-operative rule making y Explaining Procedures 126 .

y These different approaches can further be classified into specific classroom management techniques. y The four factors are related to positive reinforcement. Thus. by events in the environment. extinction and negative reinforcements. the teacher is required to master and apply the factors identified above. y learning is influenced largely.7. punishment. 127 . The principle of Behavior Modification Approach y This views classroom management as the process of modifying students behavior. if not entirely.

giving the class five 128 minutes rest.Curative / Remedial Techniques Ignoring y Eye Contact: y Closing in or Proximity. giving them the energizer or activator allow them to sing their favorite song. physical exercise. etc. . (give individual work). physical closeness: Touch and signal y Humor y Separating Misbehaving Children y Out of sight Technique y Restructuring y changing the teaching method. tell them jokes or short stories.

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