Introducing the Enhanced Fujita Scale

Jim LaDue, Ed Mahoney, and Mark Sessing (NWS WDTB) National Press Foundation Workshop March 12th, 2007

Objectives
• Become aware of how tornadoes damage structures • Aware of What Goes Into an Enhanced Fujita Scale Rating • Walk through representative damage survey situations • Provide you links to comprehensive on-line Enhanced Fujita Scale training

Wind effects on buildings

Horizontal force Bournoulli force

Internal pressurization

Failure of external envelope allows the wind to pressurize the interior

Internal pressurization

Collateral Damage

Collateral damage

John Dean [mailto:John.Dean@powersouth.com]

Subvortices

Adapted from Fujita, 1971

Did a suction vortex cause this damage?

Tornado damage is typically much longer than wide

Tornado converges debris toward the center of a vortex or subvortex

Tornado converges debris toward the center of a vortex or subvortex

The EF-Scale
• Need more damage indicators • recalibrate winds associated with F-scale ratings • better correlate wind and rating • account for construction variability • Flexibility, Extensibility, Expandability
The framed house is one of only a few F-scale damage indicators.

Evidence indicates a well constructed house can be blown away by winds much less than 260 mph (Phan and Simiu,2003).

EF-Scale Development has a wide range of participation
• Led by Wind Science and Engineering Center, Texas Tech University, 7-8 March 2001 • Objectives
– Representative group of users – ID key issues – Make recommendations – Develop a strategy

EF-Scale Damage Indicators (DIs)
• • • 28 DIs were identified by the Steering Committee Each DI has several Degrees of Damage (DOD) DIs and DODs can be added or modified

Framed house

Single wide mobile home

Small Retail Building

28 Damage Indicators (DI)

Degrees of Damage

DOD for a Framed House, FR12

Meaning of the UB, EXP and LB Winds
UB: Design exceeds codes for typical US home, better than average load path.

One, Two Fam House ily WInd Speed Wind Speed (mph) (mph) 250 200 150 100 50 0 1 2 3 4 5 DOD 6 7 8 9 10 EXP LB UB

EXP: Design exhibits typical construction

LB: Design fails to meet US building codes, poor maintenance and/or load path

DOD to Wind Speed to EF-Scale

Wind speeds in mph, 3-second gust

Comparing F and EF-Scales

The EF-Scale is a damage scale: speeds were estimated from the damage
EF-Scale
0 1 2 3 4 5
EF5 EF4 EF3 F4 EF2
F3 F2 F5 B17

M1.0

F12

M0.8 M0.7 M0.6

B1

B3

B5

B7

B9

EF1 B11 EF0
F0

F1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 0 1 2 3 4 5

Beaufort Scale

6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Fujita Scale

Mach Scale

0.6 1.0

Rating a DI with the EF-Scale
• • Identify the DI Match the damage with the DOD Modify the wind based on construction quality Convert wind speed estimate to rating

FR12, DOD 6: Large Section of roof removed, most walls standing, 122 mph, EF2 FR12, DOD 7: Exterior Walls Collapsed, 132 mph, EF3

Step3: Integrating Constructions Quality
Failing Standard Exceeding

220 lbs

414 lbs
(assuming no split wood)

1200 lbs

Photographs ©Tim Marshall

A strategy for surveying tornado tracks with the EF-Scale
1. Identify DIs first with broad survey 2. Carefully identify DODs for each chosen DI 3. Rate the DIs 4. Use the highest rated DIs to help rate the tornado
LIRB: DOD 6: Inward, outward collapse of exterior walls. Expected wind = 137 mph EF3

FR12: DOD7: Exterior walls collapsed. Expected wind = 132 mph, EF2

http://meted.ucar.edu/resource/wcm/ftp/FinalNWSF-scaleAssessmentGuide.pdf

Rating a tornado event – exceeding your maximum rating possible?

EF3^ EF4^

EF#^, where ^ means you’ve maximized the rating of a DI before EF5 was reached.

• A tornado can only be rated within the ranges of available Damage Indicators (DIs)

Strengths of EF-Scale
• EF-Scale
– 28 DIs – Accounts for differences of structural integrity within a DI – Wind speeds determined from damage – Continuity from the F-scale – Expandibility, Flexibility, Extensibility

• F Scale
– Only a Couple DIs – No accounting for differences of structural integrity within a DI – Wind speeds not derived from damage

Objectives: 5, EF-Scale strengths

EF-Scale limitations • Change in scale may introduce artifacts into the historical record • Complicated • Wind speeds subject to change for each rating • No function relating wind speed to rating • Debate continues about wind speed assignments

Objectives: 6, EF-Scale limitations

Trial Survey

1

Large Isolated Retail Building – DI 12 LIRB

Large Isolated Retail Building – DI 12 LIRB
• • • • • • • • DODs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Trial Survey: point 2

1 2

Metal Building System (MBS)

Metal Building System (MBS)
• • • • • • • • • • • DODs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Site 2

Trial Survey

1 2 3

Hardwood Tree, TH Mobile Home Double Wide, MHDW

3A

3B

Hardwood Tree (TH)

• • • • • •

DODs 1 2 3 4 5

Site 3A

Mobile Home Double Wide, MHDW
• • • • • • • • • • • • • DODs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Site 3B

Trial Survey

1 2 3 4

House (FR12)
• • • • • • • • • • • DODs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Site 4

Trial Survey: Rate the whole tornado

1 2 3 4

For More Information

http://www.wdtb.noaa.gov/courses/EF-scale

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful