Adolescent Reproductive Health

Presented by: Dr. Richard O. Muga (MBS) National Co-ordinating Agency for Population and Development, Nairobi-Kenya

Seminar for African Journalist held at Hilton Hotel, Nairobi-Kenya on 15-18th June 2006.

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STI’s and HIV/AIDS

World Wide: 111 million of 333 million new cases of STI’s occur to people under age 25 years Kenya: Among those tested for HIV/AIDS 3% (711) and 0.4% (745) of women and men aged 15-19 years respectively have been infected with HIV/AIDS

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Adolescent Reproductive Health

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CURRENT SITUATION OF ADOLESCENTS

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Outline of the presentation
      

Adolescent sexual experience STIs and HIV/AIDS Contraceptive use Female genital cutting Pregnancy and child bearing Unsafe Abortions What can we do?

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Introduction
 

Adolescents are those aged 10-19 years Globally, those aged 10-19 years are estimated at 1.2 billion Most men and women become sexually active during adolescence Adolescents reproductive health decisions outcomes are highly devastating Adolescents face several barriers such as social norms and cultural taboos about young people’s sexuality

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Sexual Behavior among Youth

Women: almost half of young women have sex by the time they turn 18. And more than one in ten (13%) have sex by the time they are 15. Men: Young men start having sex at an earlier age. Sixty percent had sex by age 18, and a quarter had sex by age 15. Sub-Saharan Africa: 30% of unmarried women (15-19 years) have had sex

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Outcomes of sexual behaviour

  

70% of adolescents in Kenya engage in high risk unprotected sex STI’s, HIV/AIDS Increased risks of unwanted pregnancies Unsafe abortions resulting into severe illness Complications during abortions causing infertility and deaths

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Premarital Sex and Condom Use
Women 15-19 (never married) Men 15-19 (never married)

41 29
Percent

18

25

Had sex in past 12 months

Used condom at last sex (among those who had sex)

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Teen Pregnancy and Motherhood
Eastern 15% North Eastern 29% Percent of women age 15-19 who are mothers or pregnant with their first child.

Western 27%

Rift Valley 31%

Central 15% Nyanza 21% Nairobi 20% Coast 29%

Kenya: 23%
World

wide it is estimated that 15 million women aged 15-19 give birth every year

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Risks of Early Child bearing
 Less

education hence lower future income for young mothers  Social rejection by community  Obstructed labour resulting into permanent injury or death for mother and infant  Premature and low birth weight deliveries
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Unsafe Abortions
 

Unsafe abortions have serious health risks Globally, 2.5 million unsafe abortions occur among adolescent girls aged 15-19 years Pregnancy related abortions and child birth are leading cause of deaths to adolescents aged 15-19 years Kenya, 4 in every 10 women who die from unsafe abortions are adolescents

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Contraceptive Use

Contraceptive use among the adolescents is very low Sub-Saharan Africa 35% of unmarried sexually active women use modern contraception Kenya: only 5% of sexually active adolescents use modern contraceptive methods
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Current Use of Family Planning
25 22 20 17

Percent women (age 15-24) using 10 a family planning 7 method 5
15 5

Any method Modern method

0 15-19 20-24

Age
Sub-Saharan

Africa: 35% of unmarried sexually active women (15-19 years) use modern contraception

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Female Genital Cutting

Between 100 million and 180 million women world wide have undergone FGC practice Every day some 600 girls world wide are at risk of undergoing FGC Kenya, 20% of women aged 15-19 years have undergone FGC The practice of FGC is currently outlawed in Kenya under the children’s Act of 2001
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Female Genital Cutting

Female Genital Cutting have serious consequences on women:
Infections,

pain and bleeding which can lead to shock and possibly death Prolonged and obstructed labour Fistula Inability to enjoy sexual rights

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What can be done?

  

Provide sexual and reproductive health information and services to adolescents Put in place proper Legislation Support multi-sectoral programmes Provide health education to adolescents such as responsible sexual behaviour, HIV/AIDS, sexuality, family planning
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What can be done?

Encourage parents to actively involve themselves in adolescent reproductive health issues Train more peer educators to reach out the adolescents Provide integrated health services to adolescents such as family planning information and services

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What Can Be Done?
 

Establish adolescent-friendly services Ensure adolescent-friendly services have high quality information necessary for informed consent Increase opportunities for women’s education and employment Encourage alternative rites of passage

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Global Appeal

Adolescents today are increasingly facing more reproductive health challenges than ever before More efforts is needed by all actors to address adolescents reproductive health issues Invest in the young people today to assure tomorrow
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Who we Are

NCAPD is a SAGA established through legal notice no. 120 of 29th October 2004 Provide leadership in Population and development matters Assess multi-sectoral population issues and support stakeholders Advocate for Political and other support to address population issues

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Who we are
Vision: To be an institution of excellence in Population Policy formulation and Management Mission: To provide leadership in Formulating, Coordinating and implementing Population Policies and Programmes for Sustainable Development

Contact: Chancery Building, 4th Floor, Valley Road P.O BOX 48994-00100 Nairobi, Kenya. Tel:+254-20-2711600/1 +254-20-2711711

Fax: +254-20-2716508 E-mail: info@ncapdke.org Website: www.ncapdke.org
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