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Laser

Communication
PRAVIN KUMAR
07EC75 05-
04-2011
Organization
1. Introduction
2. Basic principle
3. LASER action
4. Construction
5. What is LASER Communication?
6. Why Laser Communication?
7. A Simple Laser comm. System
 7.1. Transmitter
 7.2. Modulation
 7.3. Receiver
8. Current Application
9. FSO
 9.1. What is FSO?
 9.2. Advantages of FSO
 9.3. Last mile bottleneck
 9.4. Signal Propagation Impedances
10.SUMMARY
11.References
3.
INTRODUCTION

LASER ?

“LIGHT AMPLIFICATION BY

SIMULATED EMMISSION OF
RADIATION”
BASIC PRINCIPLE

ABSORPTION
SPONTANEOUS EMISSION
STIMULATED EMISSION
POPULATION INVERSION
LASER ACTION
LIGHT PROPOGATION
CONSTRUCTION
Laser Communication ?

 Laser communications systems


 - wireless connections.
 - work similarly to fiber optic
links.
 - no fiber backbone required.
 - lasers transmitted through
free space.
Free Space Laser
Communication
Transmitting information via a laser
beam
◦ Video
◦ Data
◦ Sound
Terrestrial / Space based systems

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Why Laser Communication?

Current high speed communications


technology:
◦ Radio
◦ Fiber Optics


Why not Fiber Optics?

Not always possible to lay fiber


lines
◦ Satellites
◦ Combat zones
◦ Physically / Economically not
practical
◦ Emergencies

 LC incorporated into fiber optic


networks when fiber not
practical.

Why not RF?
Bandwidth
◦ LC >> RF
◦ transmit data @ 2.5-10 Gbps.

Power
◦ LC directed at target.
◦ Much less transmission power required.
◦ Less free space power loss.

Size / Weight
◦ LC antenna << RF antenna.

Security
◦ LC more secure than RF

- low divergence laser beam.

§
Free Space Optic Link
Equation:

 Preceived = received power


 Ptransmit = transmit power
 Areceiver = receiver area
 Div = beam divergence (in radians)
 Range = link length
Directional transmission:
Narrow divergence of the FSO transmit path (shown in
red) as compared to a typical Radio Frequency (RF)
path (shown in blue).
A Simple laser Comm. System

Signal Transmitter Laser

Receiver Signal

lase
r
High Level design

PORT
Conditionin

A/D
MCU MCU
g

UART UART

Conditionin Conditionin
g g

Laser Diode Photo


resistor
What is the Transmitter?

The transmitter involves:


oSignal processing electronics

(analog/digital)
oLaser modulator

oLaser (visible, near visible

wavelengths)
o

 Transmit antennae gain, transmit


pointing losses.
 Laser characteristics
- peak and average optical power
- pulse rate
- pulse width
Laser Diode

Laser Diodes include


Photodiodes for
feedback to insure
consistent output.
Modulation
AM
◦ Easy with gas lasers, hard with
diodes
PWM (Pulse Width Modulation)
PFM (Pulsed FM)
◦ Potentially the highest bandwidth
(>100kHz)
What is the Receiver?

The receiver involves:


oTelescope (referred to as ‘antenna’)
oSignal processor

oDetector

-PIN diodes
-Avalanche Photo Diodes (APD)
-Single or multiple detectors

Often both ends - equipped


with a receiver and transmitter
AVALANCHE PHOTO DIODE

Stabilisation of working point of APD:


.
Gain =75
Temperature stabilisation.

Thermoelectrically cooler stabilisation


system inside of APD module
Current Applications
Defense and sensitive areas.
FSO Communication.
airports - communication across the
runways.
Mass communication
o400 TV channels
o40,000 phone conversations

NASA
oSatellite– satellite
oEarth - satellite
Earth
FSO

line-of-sight technology.
uses LASERS and Photo detectors.
optical connections between two
points—without the fiber.

FSO units consist


 -optical transceiver with a laser
(transmitter)
 -Photo detector (receiver)
 -provide full duplex capability.
 ADVANTAGES OF FSO
SYSTEMS

No licensing required.


Very low installation cost.
No sunk costs.
No capital overhangs.
Highly secure transmission possible.
High data rates @ 2.5 -10 Gbps.
LAST MILE BOTTLENECKS
Signal Propagation Impediments:

 Absorption:

 - suspended water molecules extinguish


photons.

 Scattering:

 - wavelength collides with the scatterer.


 - Rayleigh scattering (Lambda scatterer <<


wavelength)

 - Mie scattering (Lambda scatterer ≈


wavelength)
Physical obstructions: Flying birds

Safety:
 - technology uses lasers for
transmission.

Scintillation:
 - fluctuations in signal amplitude.
 - heated air from the earth or man
made devices.

Summary
Basic principle of laser action
discussed.
Laser communication system
used in satellite
communication.
Provide higher data rates , high
security & lesser antenna size.
FSO used for lesser link length ~
4km.
FSO links –designed carefully due
References
 www.mindstein.net Laser
communication.pdf
 www.bestneo.com
Lasercommunicationsystem.pdf
 server4.oersted.dtu.dk/courses/31825/Projec
t11.pdf
 www.freepatentsonline.com/4717828.html
 www.mseconference.org/.../mse03_2P_Uher
ek_Microoptoelectronicscurricula.pdf
 opticalcomm.jpl.nasa.gov/PAPERS/ATP/gospi
03b.pdf

04/08/11 Technical Seminar-II 30