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V Definition

V Principle of Solar Cell

V Current generation
V I-V characteristic of an illuminated p-n
V Physical process of Solar cell
V I-V characteristic of solar cell
V Solar cell parameter
V Applications
V reference
V Device that converts optical energy into
electrical energy.
‡ It supplies a voltage and a current to a resistive load
(light, battery, motor).
‡ Power = Current x Voltage=Current2 x R= Voltage2/R
V The voltage supplied by the cell changes
with changes in the resistance of the
V It supplies DC power.
V ost familiar solar cells are based on the
effect of photo voltaic.
V In this effect, light falling on a semi-
conductor device of two layers, produces
a potential difference or photo voltage
between the layers.
V The voltage thus produced can drive a
current through an external circuit
producing useful work.
The Photovoltaic Effect in a Solar Cell
VA solar cell is a very large diode.
‡ When Si that is doped p-type is next to a region of Si
doped n-type, the holes from the p-type side diffuse
to the n-type side. The electrons diffuse to the p-
type side.
‡ This creates an electric field.
‡ This electric field makes it easy for current to flow in
one direction, but hard to flow in the other.
‡ This electric field also separates electrons and holes
that have been created by the absorption of sun
light. When the electrons and holes are separated
electric power can be extracted from the circuit.
V When light is incident
on p-n junction-
¦ Photon absorbed if a ë
¦ No big change in
majority carriers in
conduction band.
¦ But a significant
change in minority
carriers in valance
Band diagram when light is
incident band .
VA current is identified due to drift of
minority carriers across a junction as a
generation current.
V Generation rate gop (EHP/cm3) participate
in total current.
V So the total current is depend on current
due to usual diode and current due to
optically generation.
I= Ith(eqV/KT ² 1) - Iop

I-V characteristic of an illuminated p-n junction

V In I quadrant current and
junction voltage both are
+ve.(forward bias)
V In III quadrant current
and junction voltage both
are ²ve.(reverse bias)
So power is delivered to
the device from the
external circuit
V But in IV quadrant junction voltage is +ve
and current is ²ve.
V So power is delivered from junction to
external circuit.
V Solar cell work in this IV quadrant region.

The device delivers

power to the load
ISC =The Short circuit
VOC=The Open Circuit
÷  =The Voltage at the
maximum power point
  = The Current at the
maximum power point

Forward bias characteristics of solar cell

V This figure gives many parameter of solar
V Fill Factor- is essentially a measure of
quality of the solar cell.
V It·s a figure of merit for a solar design.
Pmax = maximum power
PT = theoretical power
Efficiency () - is the ratio of the electrical
power output , compared to the solar
power input,  , into the solar cell
 =   = 
 = ÷    / IT As
IT = radiation flux
As = surface area of p-n junction
V There are no fuel costs or fuel supply
V The equipment can usually operate
V Solar cells are very reliable and require
little maintenance

V Ocean navigation aids
V Telecommunication systems
V Remote monitoring and control
V Cathodic protection
V PV Power Stations
V PV in buildings
V Water pumping
V Domestic supply
V Lighting
V Health care
¦ D   Wikipedia, the free
¦ D      
¦ DThe Solar Goldmineµ, Greenpeace
Australia, 1997
¦ D        
a ! "#$$%