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4210 Postgraduate Course in Radio Communications
Introduction UWB Channel Models Modulation Schemes References
Theory, Channel, and Applications
A bit of History
Is it a new technology?
The first impulse system patent was awarded in 1954 The basic concept was first described in 1960 The first landmark patent of UWB was awarded in 1973 It has been used since 1980 in military Radar applications The term UWB was first used in 1989 by DoD Up to 1994, all UWB studies were classified A substantial change occurred in 2002 when UWB was made public (by FCC)
UWB Channel Models Modulation Schemes References
The concept is 50 years old . . .
UWB could be used to Indoor.5mW Therefore. transmit and receive an extremely short duration burst of radio frequency energy The resultant waveforms are extremely broadband The very wideband nature of UWB means that it spans frequencies commonly used as carrier frequencies The UWB signal is carrierless. ³short-pulse´. OR Outdoor. That causes many concerns UWB Synonyms Other terms associated with ³ultra-wideband´ include ³impulse´. (NO carrier at all) No upconversion nor downconversion No local oscillator nor phase tracking loops UWB signal is noiselike Low energy density Pseudo-random characteristics /Title/ 12/20/2005 7 /Title/ 12/20/2005 8 . ³carrier-less´. ³super wideband´. but for very low data rates /Title/ 12/20/2005 5 /Title/ 12/20/2005 6 Where does it fit? Fundamentals The basic idea is to develop. ³fast frequency chirp´.5 GHz . long-range. ³non-sinusoidal´.A Short Story The efforts to bring UWB to the mainstream were greeted with great hostility The allocated band is 7. ³time domain´. short-range communications for high data rates.the largest allocation for BW to any commercial terrestrial system The enormous BW means that UWB could offer Gbps data rates The BW sat on top of many existing allocations. and ³mono-pulse´ FCC allocated 1500-times the spectrum allocation of a single UMTS license The band is FREE FCC received almost 1000 submissions opposing the proposed UWB In response The maximum power was limited to ~ 0.
5 GHz Bf > 1% Bf > 25% Spectral Mask UWB system cover a large spectrum and interfere with existing licensed spectrum UWB Coexistences ³Polite´ coexistence with Licensed spectrum The Aggregate Interference from UWB is ³undetectable´ to narrowband Rx. Wideband and Ultrawideband Fractional Bandwidth (Bf) B f fH fc fL UWB Signal Definition FCC Definition Bf > 20% (measured at -10 dB) total BW > 500 MHz Common Definition System Radio TV GSM-900 GSM-1800 WCDMA WLAN UWB /Title/ 12/20/2005 Transmission Power [W] 50 kW 100 kW 320 W 20 W 20 W 1W 1 mW Bandwidth [Hz] 75 kHz 6 MHz 200 kHz 200 kHz 5 MHz 20 MHz 7.600 100 4 0.013 Classification narrowband narrowband narrowband narrowband wideband wideband ultrawideband 9 /Title/ 12/20/2005 10 Bf > 25% total BW > 1.600 16.05 0.5 GHz Power Spectral Density [W/MHz] 666. The Power Spectral Density is at Narrow Band Thermal Noise level or below PSD Pt BW /Title/ 12/20/2005 11 /Title/ 12/20/2005 12 .Narrowband.1700 1.
4 cm Low duty cycle operation High energy efficiency /Title/ 12/20/2005 13 /Title/ 12/20/2005 14 Prominent Features (2/2) Low complexity of UWB transceiver Carrier-less transmission results in low cost manufacturing Nearly all-digital. with minimum RF electronics Theoretical Motivation: Channel Capacity Precise ranging capability Have very good time domain resolution allowing for location and tracking applications Precise timing required to receive sub-nanosecond pulses presents the opportunity to precisely determine range between Tx.0. And Rx. In order of several centimeters /Title/ 12/20/2005 15 /Title/ 12/20/2005 16 .13ns => resolvable pathlength 60cm .Unique Features Ultra-short pulses High data rate Precise ranging capability Prominent Features (1/2) Low probability of detect/intercept (LPD/I) Extremely low power spectral density (below noise level) Extremely narrow pulse-width Low duty cycle Baseband transmission Low transceiver complexity No upconversion nor downconversion No local oscillator nor phase tracking loops Resiliency to multipath fading Can resolve multipath signals having differential delays on order of 1 ns Possible to distinguish reflecting surfaces separated by centimeters For pulse duration 2ns .
the FCC issued the UWB rulings that provided the first radiation limitations for UWB Regulation in Europe Currently.Applications Wireless Communication Systems LAN & PAN Roadside info-station Short-range radios Military communications Home Connectivity Radar & Sensing Vehicular radar Medical imaging Surveillance /Title/ 12/20/2005 17 /Title/ 12/20/2005 18 UWB Data Rates Regulatory Bodies Regulation in the USA In Feb 2002. there are no dedicated frequency bands for UWB applications in ETSI or ITU It is expected that ETSI/CEPT will follow the FCC /Title/ 12/20/2005 19 /Title/ 12/20/2005 20 .
Introduction UWB Channel Models Modulation Schemes References /Title/ 12/20/2005 21 /Title/ 12/20/2005 22 UWB Channels Indoor Within a room (LOS & NLOS) Investigates the impact of Distance Rx/Tx antenna heights Antenna polarization UWB Channel Sounding Frequency Domain (FD) channel sounding Measures the Frequency Response of the channel The channel is excited using a frequency sweeping sinusoidal signal The received signal is an approximation of the channel transfer function Outdoor Campus environment Low altitude Mobility Time Domain (TD) channel sounding Measures the Impulse Response of the channel The channel is excited using an very short pulse /Title/ 12/20/2005 23 /Title/ 12/20/2005 24 .4 : WPAN/low-rate. low-power. 200kbps Next .15. 200Mbps.15. . 50Mbps IEEE 802.Related Standards IEEE 802.15.1 : Bluetooth.15 : Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) IEEE 802.3a: WPAN/Higher rate. . UWB IEEE 802. 1Mbps IEEE 802.15. mW level.3 : WPAN/high rate.
and Ray Arrival Time Both arrival times are modeled independently by Poisson processes Clustering Models Previous models for indoor propagation reported the existence of clusters of multipath components Example 4cm pathlength difference. gives rise to two multipath components separated by 133ps Thus. the UWB channel has the following characteristics Only few multipath components overlap within each resolvable delay bin The amplitude fading characteristics are NO longer the usual Rayleigh Due to the large bandwidth.g. the propagation phenomena are different in the lower band and the upper band of the spectrum The size of the Fresnel zone will be remarkably different at the lower and higher frequency bands.3 WG as the reference model The model assumes Cluster Arrival Time.2 85.7 110122 134 146 171 159 195 183 220 208 244 232 256 269 293 281 Modified -K model Ray Tracing model /Title/ 12/20/2005 27 /Title/ 12/20/2005 Angle-of-Arrival (degrees) 28 .2 24. furniture piece) can give rise to several multipath components These components would be part of the same cluster 012.861 73.15.UWB Channel Sounding UWB Channel Model Characteristics Compared to the ³conventional´ channel models.6 48. different parts of the same reflector (e.4 97. (Fresnel zone is a function of frequency) The higher frequency components are attenuated more than the lower frequencies /Title/ 12/20/2005 /Title/ 12/20/2005 26 Channel Models Modified Saleh-Valenzuela (SV) Model Adopted by the IEEE 802..4 36.
l t T li i k . and 20log n1 n2 20 N k.SV Impulse Response Model SV Impulse Response Model The channel coefficients k.l l . 2 1 2 2 L K 10 k l N 0.l l k.l k.l l Multipath gain coefficients Delay of lth cluster k. hi t ith realization Xi k l0k0 Log-normal shadowing i . 2 2 Model inputs Delay of kth multipath component relative to the lth cluster arrival time Cluster Arrival Rate (1/nsec) Ray Arrival Rate (1/nsec) Cluster Decay Factor Ray Decay Factor Standard deviation for Cluster lognormal fading 1 (in dB) Standard deviation for Ray lognormal fading 2 (in dB) Standard deviation for total multipath lognormal fading x (in dB) /Title/ 12/20/2005 29 /Title/ 12/20/2005 30 Main Parameters of SV-Model SV Impulse Response Model SV-3 Model /Title/ 12/20/2005 31 /Title/ 12/20/2005 .l are defined by 10 k .l p k.l .l Where n1 2 1 and n 2 N 0.
48 10.87 49 191 203 149 198 172 136 107 184 156 255 293 41 327 o LOS signal at 5.92 5.47 16.13 13.47m and 49o 35 /Title/ 12/20/2005 36 .54 13.07 10.Closer look at the Power Delay Profile LOS vs.57 8.20 17.61 10. NLOS Impulse Response Strong rays Cluster of rays (multipath cluster) Exponential time decay of ray energy Exponential time decay of power / 33 /Title/ 12/20/2005 Example: UWB Channel Measurements Example: UWB Channel Measurements Locat ion dL OS (m.04 5.) AOA P B F2 H C F1 L N A E M T U W 5.23 8.29 16.68 7.
2m and 149o LOS signal at 13.07m and 255o /Title/ 12/20/2005 37 /Title/ 12/20/2005 38 Path Loss Model The general path loss is given by Path loss component Path Loss Model PL d dB PL0 n10 log10 d m X Lognormal shadowing term Received power at reference distance (1m) /Title/ 12/20/2005 39 /Title/ 12/20/2005 40 .Example: UWB Channel Measurements Example: UWB Channel Measurements LOS signal at 10.
. Introduction UWB Channel Models Impulse Radio UWB modulation is based on the Impulse Radio concept Generation of a series of very short duration pulses Any given pulse will have very low energy The permitted power levels for UWB are very low (~ 0. . many pulses are combined to carry the information of one bit Impulse Radio is a mere baseband technique /Title/ 12/20/2005 41 /Title/ 12/20/2005 42 The Gaussian Pulse: Time The Gaussian Pulse: Frequency Tp Tw /Title 43 /Title/ 44 .5mW) Modulation Schemes References Because of the low energy.Next .
2 0 -0.4 -0.8 -1 0 2 4 6 8 10 Tim e (ns) Uniform Pulse Train Spacing 12 14 16 18 20 47 /Title/ 12/20/2005 Pulse Train: Frequency Gaussian Monocycle and Gaussian Monocycle Pulse Train in Frequency Domain Gaussian Monocycle Monocycle Pulse Train 100 10-2 10-4 10-6 10-8 0 2 4 6 8 Frequency (GHz) 10 12 /Title/ 12/20/2005 48 .8 0.Closer Look at Gaussian Monocycle Closer Look at Gaussian Monocycle Vt 6A e t e 3 p t 6 p 2 Vf j 2f p2 3 e e 2 6f2 2p /Title/ 45 /Titl 46 Pulse Train: Time UWB system typically use many pulse repetitions (hundreds) to represent each data symbol Uniform Pulse Train Spacing 1 0.6 0.4 0.6 -0.2 -0.
Data Modulation (1/3) Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) The data is carried in the ³fine´ time shift of the pulse While bit µ0¶ is represented by a pulse originating at the time instant 0. . Introduction UWB Channel Models Modulation Schemes References On-Off Keying (OOK) Simple implementation Poor energy efficiency /Title/ 12/20/2005 51 /Title/ 12/20/2005 52 . . bit Data Modulation (2/3) Bipolar Modulation (BPM) The data is carried in the polarity of the pulse Very energy efficient µ1¶ is shifted in time by the amount Example 4-ary PPM with data 01 from 0. Bi-orthogonal Modulation Combination of PAM and BPM M-ary bi-orthogonal has M/2 possible PPM shifts /Title/ 12/20/2005 49 /Title/ 12/20/2005 0 Data Modulation (3/3) Pulse Amplitude (PAM) Very poor energy efficiency Next .
³Why UWB. ³UWB Signals and Systems´. Mohammad Chavami. List three other waveforms (pulses). ³Ultra-Wideband Communications´. ³Introduction to UWB: Impulse Radio for Radar and Wireless Communications´. (1 point) Q2. IEEE P802. IEEE P802. (4 points) /Title/ 12/20/2005 55 . What kind of receiver do you suggest. Center of Wireless Communications. doc: IEEE 802.mprg. we addressed the advantages of the UWB systems. A Review of Ultrawideband Technology´. ³UWB: Theory and Applications´. Saquid. Massachusetts Institute of Technology  Georgios B. Kings College London  Moe Win. Oct 2004 Abbreviations FCC: Federal Communications Commission ETSI: European Telecommunications Standards Institute ITU: International Telecommunications Union CEPT: European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications ALT PHY: Alternative Physical (layer) /Title/ 12/20/2005 53 /Title/ 12/20/2005 54 Exercise Q1. et al. Ghassemzadeh. University of Florida. The Gaussian pulse (and its derivatives) are not the only possible pulse shape for UWB systems. ³Review of Ultra-Wideband Radio Channel Modeling´. ³Recent Results on Ultra-Wide Bandwidth Channels with Unknown Distributions´. John Wiley & Sons. Vahid Tarokh. Dec 2003  M. ³The Ultra-wideband Indoor Path Loss Model´. The University of Texas  Saeed S. ³Ultra Wideband Communications: An Idea whose Time has Come´.15-SG3a-02/325  Martin Weisenhorn. The life is not so rosy! There are many potential challenges in UWB implementations.References  Leonard E. University of Oulu  Jean-Marc Cramer. doc: IEEE 802. National Institute of Standards and Technology.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs). ³UWB Communications for Military Applications´. ³UWB. (3 pints) Q3. Justify your selection. Mention four of them with one line explanation per each. Zurich Research Laboratory  Ian Oppermann. April 2005  Ian Oppernamm.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs). University of Minnesota  Liuqing Yang. Martin Mittelbach.org  Cristian Muller. Virginia Polytechnique Institute & State University. URL: www. Miller. ³Study of coexistence between UWB and narrowband cellular systems´. Dresden University of Technology. weWIN group. Given the multipath rich UWB channel.15-02/278r1-SG3a  Ben Allen. A Brief and Biased Overview´. ³An Evaluation of Indoor Ultra-Wideband Communication Channels´. How would you counteract the ISI phenomena. (think about pulse generation) (2 points) Q4.. Giannanksi. In this presentation. The ISI could seriously hinder the UWB system if not considered carefully. April 2003  Jeffrey Reed.
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