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BY: PAWAN KUMAR and
Pragmatics is the study of language in context and concentrates on language as a communication tool that is used to achieve social ends.
Sometime what you say is not what you mean.(felicity condition) Sometime what you say is having literally different meaning than what is conveyed.(cooperative maxim) Semantic covers only literal meaning of the utterance it does not look beyond the words.
Austin (1911-1960) claims that many utterances (things people say) are equivalent to actions. the text seems to be either incomplete or to have a different meaning to what is really intended.L. Pragmatics includes: Speech act theory : The philosopher J. 4 . Felicity conditions : These explain that merely saying the words does not accomplish the act. from a semantic viewpoint.As per Steve Campsall: Pragmatics is a way of investigating how sense can be made of certain texts even when.
1989) Reference Inference Anaphor Discourse analysis: 5 .Contents: Speech act Deixis Conversational maxims(Gricean maxims.
They are conditions needed for success or achievement of a performative.Felicity condition These are conditions necessary to the success of a speech act ( Latin root felix or happy ). the speaker must be sincere (as in apologizing or vowing). And external circumstances must be suitable: Types of felicity condition: 1. Preparatory conditions: Preparatory conditions include the status or authority of the speaker to perform the speech act. baptize people or sentence convicted felons. In some cases. Only certain people are qualified to declare war. 6 .
the problem is not that the sentence is false: it is rather "infelicitous". 7 . e. or if eventually he does not keep it.2. We are so used to a ritual or ceremonial action accompanying the speech act that we believe the act is invalidated. then although something is not in order with the utterance. situation of the utterance 3. If Peter utters the sentence without the intention to keep the promise. . when Peter says "I promise to do the dishes ( in making the utterance he performs the promise).g. Conditions for execution: Conditions for execution can assume an exaggerated importance. if the action is lacking 4. Sincerity conditions : At a simple level these show that the speaker must really intend what he or she says.
We can usually recognize the type of act performed by a speaker in uttering a sentence. 'questioning' and 'informing etc. interpret the function of) what they say.Speech acts We usually know how speakers intend us to 'take' (or. 'commanding'. 'requesting'. are covered in the use of the term speech act 8 .
Declarative Statement 9 . Forms Functions Question Did you eat the food? Interrogative Eat the food (please). Imperative Command (request) You ate the food.
Direct Speech Act When the semantic meaning of a sentence is the same as what the speaker intended to convey . For example. when a speaker doesn't know something and asks the hearer to provide the information. it is described as a direct speech act. he or she will typically produce a direct speech act of the following type: Can you ride a bicycle ? Did he come to class yesterday? 10 .
You would treat it as a request and perform the action requested.Indirect Speech Act Whenever one of the forms in the set above is used to perform a function other than the one listed beside it. you would not treat this as a question at all. Now compare this utterance with Can you pass the salt? In this second example. 11 . you would not usually understand the utterance as a question about your ability to do something. In fact. the result is an indirect speech act.
is an utterance (communication is not intended .Two types of locutionary act ± utterance acts : where something is said (or a sound is made) and which may not have any meaning.it is just a sound caused by surprise). example : Oh! . ± propositional acts : where a particular reference is made. Example: The black cat (something is referenced. but no communication may be intended) 13 .Words alone do not have a simple fixed meaning.They are very much affected by the situation. Speech act theory broadly explains these utterances : 1.Locutionary act : comprise simply the speech acts that have taken place. the speaker and the listener.
In other words. they seek to change minds! Example: Please find the black cat .is an illocutionary act (it intends to communicate). thoughts or actions of either the speaker or the listener. Example: I promise to pay you back .llocutionary act: are the real actions which are performed by the utterance.Perlocutionary acts: Speech acts that have an effect on the feelings.etc. 2. 3. where saying equals doing. 14 .. dare. believe .is a directive perlocutionary act (it seeks to change behaviour). warning. as in betting.
These are words like here. you. there. then. where and when.Deixis It refers to the phenomenon wherein understanding the meaning of certain words and phrases in an utterance requires contextual information. about whom. this. yesterday. now. As well as most pronouns. especially the physical context of the speaker. such as I. her. 15 . them. There are some words in the language that cannot be interpreted at all unless the physical context. is known. Some sentences of English are virtually impossible to understand if we don't know who is speaking. him. that.
These expressions have to be interpretted in terms of what person . they. . tomorrow. that. 16 . now) which depend for their interpretation on the immediate physical context in which they were uttered. this sentence is extremely vague. because they aren't here now.place or time the speaker has in mind.For example: You'll have to bring that back tomorrow. here. Out of context. It contains a large number of expressions (you.
Person deixis Concerns with the grammatical persons involved in an utterance. 17 . the speaker. (1) those directly involved (e. (3) those mentioned in the utterance Generally indicated by pronouns Examples: I am going to the movies. . but he came to the rescue.g. the addressee). Would you like to have dinner? They tried to hurt me.
near the addressee. Japanese.e. there can also refer to the location of the addressee. She was sitting over there Deictic terms are generally understood to be relative to the location of the speaker. here and there are often used to refer to locations near to and far from the speaker.e. the distinction is three-way: proximal.e. How is the weather there? In other languages. Here is where we will place the statue.Place Deixis Concernsed with the spatial locations relevant to an utterance. Here is a good spot. and distal. near the speaker. i. as in The shop is across the street. Filipino and Turkish 18 . Thai. it is too sunny over there. i. i. far from both eg in Korean. Examples: I enjoy living in this city. medial.
2 categories: Encoding Time. 19 . or ET: Relative to the time when an utterance is made "encoding time".Temporal deixis Concerns itself with the various times involved in and referred to in an utterance. Decoding Time or DT: when the utterance is heard Example: It is raining out now. but I hope when you read this it will be sunny. "then". or ET. Example adverbs like "now".
indicates the use of expressions within an utterance to refer to parts of the discourse that contains the utterance . in the next paragraph . Have you heard this joke? here this refers to an upcoming joke.etc Social Deixis Social deixis concerns the social information that is encoded within various expressions. eg. named for the Latin tu and vos (informal and formal versions of you ) are the name given to the phenomenon when a language has two different second-person pronouns. 2. 20 . Dr. . the T form might be used when speaking to a friend or social equal. Prof. Example: Example: 1. we also express status and attitude through titles.Others: Discourse Also referred to as text deixis. whereas the V form would be used speaking to a stranger or social superior. Example: in Shakespeare s plays : a king Your Majesty or you while a peasant thou .In the next chapter . such as relative social status and familiarity T-V distinctions.etc. In English.
1989) The Gricean Maxims are a way to explain the link between utterances and what is understood from them. speakers and hearers share a cooperative principle. Relevance speakers contributions should relate clearly to the purpose of the exchange. nor too much. 2. Quantity-a contribution should be as informative as is required neither too little. 1. Manner speakers contributions should be perspicuous: clear. avoiding obscurity and ambiguity. 4. Paul Grice proposes that in ordinary conversation. Speakers shape their utterances to be understood by hearers. orderly and brief. 21 . The principle can be explained by four underlying rules or maxims.Quality speakers should be truthful. 3. The success of a conversation depends upon the various speakers approach to the interaction.Conversational maxims(Gricean maxims.
Maxims are useful for analysing and interpreting conversation. B Proper: I don't know if that's such a good idea. we communicate particular non-literal meanings by appearing to "violate" or "flout" these maxims. Background: A friend's father considers whether or not to buy your friend a new car. Saying sarcastically and in a more humorous way. that sounds like a good idea. A: Should I buy my son this new sports car? B Improper: Yeah. his car runs fine. e. 22 .g. and you are aware that your friend's old car has broken down before. his car breaks down all the time. Very often.
entailed or inferred from any utterance. someone is waiting outside. Presupposition: Your sister is waiting outside. Entailments logical or necessary corollaries of an utterance. presupposed. 23 . Presupposition: You have a sister.In analysing utterances and searching for relevance we can use a hierarchy of propositions those that might be asserted.
1. as opposed to analyzing language-as-an-abstract-system. Explicit connectives :and. 24 . because. implicit connectives : invisible / understood Attribution: Deciding whether the relation or arguments are ascribed to the writer of the text or to someone other than the writer. when.Discourse analysis Studies how written. so. oral and visual texts are used in specific contexts to make meanings. etc 2. Connective : a linguistic form that connects words or word groups.
Indefinite nouns 4.Pronouns 25 . The categories of referring expressions 1. or reader.REFERENCE Reference is an act in which a speaker.Proper nouns 2. or writer. to identify something.Definite nouns 3. uses linguistic forms to enable a listener.
The categories of referring expressions Proper nouns: Definite noun phrases: the city the secretarry of state Cairo Hillary Clinton 26 .
her 27 . noun phrases (indefinite): A place A woman Pronouns: It she .Contd.
or entities that. 28 . Example: We'd love to find a nine-foot-tall basketball player This is sometimes called an attributive use. as far as we know.It is important to recognize that not all referring expressions have identifiable physical referents. but are unknown. Indefinite noun phrases can be used to identify a physically present entity. meaning 'whoever/whatever fits the description'. do not exist. but they can also be used to describe entities that are assumed to exist.
Make an inference 1.Because there is no direct relationship between entities and words. The role of inference in communication is to allow the listener to identify correctly which particular entity the speaker is referring to. add what you know about it and then draw a conclusion What I read + A character has tears in his eyes What I already know = People with tears in their eyes are often sad What I infer The character might be sad 29 . 2. the listener s task is to infer which entity the speaker intends to identify by using a particular expression: Process: you read something.
b)The cheese sandwich left without paying.The Role of Co-text Identifying intended referents has been aided by the linguistic material. For example: a)Cheese sandwich is made with white bread. a number of possible referents. accompanying the referring expression. or co-text. 30 . that is. The referring expression actually provides arange of reference.
In English. initial reference . he. The man was holding the cat while the woman poured water on it. a woman. her. is often indefinite (a man.Anaphora and Antecedants In the film. a man and a woman were trying to wash a cat. The initial expressions antecedents Subsequent references anaphors 31 . they) are examples of subsequent reference. In the example the definite noun phrases (the man. the woman) and the pronouns (it. a cat). the cat. He said something to her and they started laughing .
and no linguistic expression is presented. Cook Æ for three minutes. 1. Peel an onion and slice it. them . Drop the slices into hot oil. or ellipsis. Æ = slices . it is called zero anaphora.Zero anaphor When the interpretation requires us to identify an entity. 32 . 2. 3.
A bound Constituent must Be c---commanded By an appropriate antecedent. There are three rule for A to c-command B: A does not dominate B B does not dominate A Every branching node that dominates A.e. also dominates B This in nutshell means that the domain of c-command is first branching node. 33 .Anaphor and C-command An anaphor must take its reference from an Appropriate antecedent Within the Same phrase Or sentence i.
B / A | F \ C / \ D E 34 . *F c-command C. D and E. * D c-commands E.e. He hit himself. In the following tree the following holds * A c-commands C. and E. * B does not ccommand any nodes.g. D. * E c-commands D. * C c-commands A and F.
(a) Move! (b) You're in the way. Come back tomorrow.What are the deictic expressions in the following utterance? I'm busy now so you can't do that here. Identify which would be direct and which indirect speech acts.Someone stands between you and the TV set you were watching. 35 . so you decide to say one of the following. (c) Could you sit down? (d) Please get out of the way.Exercise: 1. 2.
Queries??... 36 .
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