Losses in steam turbines

Steam turbines typically suIIer perIormance losses Irom:
· Steam leakage around buckets and nozzles
· Increased Iriction or surIace roughness
· Aerodynamic contour changes
· Stage energy redistribution due to area changes
a. Internal losses
1.Loss in regulating valves 2.Nozzle Iriction losses
3.Blade Iriction losses 4.Disc Iriction losses
5.Partial admission losses 6.Gland steam leakage losses
7.Residual velocity losses 8.Carry-over losses
Sequence of Energy Losses
Steam
Thermal
Power
Steam
kinetic
Power
Blade
kinetic
Power
Nozzle Losses
Moving Blade
Losses
Stage Losses
Isentropic eIIiciency oI
Nozzle
Blade Friction Factor
rreversibilities in Turbine
T
s
3
4s
4a
Ideal work w
s
÷ h
3
h
4s
Actual work w
a
÷ h
3
h
4a
Internal EIIiciency oI a turbine
8
,
9:7-30 84


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4 3
,

WTo maximize power plant efficiency, aerodynamic and steam leakage losses in the
turbine steam path must be minimized in both the rotating and stationary components.
Nozzle and bucket aerodynamic profile losses, secondary flow losses, and
leakage losses account for roughly 80% to 90% of the total stage losses.
Energy loss in Nozzle cascades:
The energy loss in the nozzle cascades depends on its
1. Size 2. surIace roughness 3. length 4. roundness oI entrance 4.divergence
angle 5.space between nozzles 5. moisture and trailing edge.
·Energy loss in the nozzle are due to the growth oI boundary layer and the
Iormation oI eddies in the wake ,apart Irom the Irictional resistance oI the
walls which varies with the height and length oI passage.
·Ultimately losses are more in turbulent boundary layer than in laminar one.
· II number oI stages are more , the total surIace area exposed to Ilow is more,
which in turn raises the Iriction loss.
Energy loss in turbine blade cascades:
· The total losses in a blade cascades by considering component loss
· Total loss ÷ proIile losses ¹ end losses.
ProIile losses:
1. It appear in blades oI an inIinitely large length. ProIile losses are driven by
surIace Iinish, total blade surIace area, airIoil shape and surIace velocity
distributions, and proper matching between nozzle and buckets to minimize
incidence losses.
2. ProIile losses can be divided in to three types,
a. Frictional loss b. Edge loss c. Wave loss
Friction loss
It is associated with the Ilow in boundary layers on the concave surIace and back
oI a blade Iar Irom the blade ends.
· This loss is determined by Iriction on the blade proIile and by loss oI energy
due to stall Irom these surIace.
The Iriction loss is greater at a higher thickness oI boundary layer. It is
associated with the distribution oI velocities which in turn depends on pressure
distribution.
In diIIuser type boundary layer thickness increases substantially resulting in
Iormation oI stall zone have typically higher energy loss coeIIicient.
Edge loss
· The edge loss is associated with the vorticity behind the edges oI a proIile and with
sudden expansion oI the Ilow behind them.
· As the Ilow moves oII a blade edge and separates ,it Iorms vortices which are
periodically carried away by the downstream.
Wave loss
· The wave loss is associated with shock waves which may Iorm in the Ilow at the
blade cascade exit at transonic to supersonic velocities.
· Shock wave in a Ilow can inIluence the boundary layer on blade proIiles, causing it
to thicken and sometimes separate, which results in an increased energy loss in the
cascades
Impingement loss
· Steam coming out Irom the nozzle at higher velocity impinges on the leading edges
oI the turbine blades , subsequently some part oI energy is lost iI the entry is
smooth enough and eddies are Iormed.
istribution of boundary layer over blade profile
Continues flow
With flow stall on blade
back
End loss
· The end losses in blade cascades are associated with certain phenomena
occurring in Ilows near the tips oI blades. These phenomena which are called
secondary Ilows, are determined by the transverse pressure gradient in the
blade cascade passage.
Secondary whirl
Turning loss
These occurs as the steam turns in the blade passage.
Disc Iriction loss
· When the turbine disc rotates in the viscous steam, there is surIace Iriction loss
due to relative motion between the disc and steam particles. Due to centriIugal
Iorce , steam thrown radially outward.
· The moving disc exerts a drag on the steam, sets it in motion Irom root to tip,
and produces a deIinite circulation.
· Some part oI Kinetic energy oI steam is lost due to this Iriction.
Losses associated with partial admission oI steam
· Partial admission oI steam to turbine stages is employed in cases when the
volume Ilow rate oI steam is not high (ie. Turbine oI low capacity)
· In turbine with partial admission ,steam is Ied onto the moving blades only
an arc oI length , rather than along the entire circumIerence.
· Along the arc , there is no active Ilow oI steam , and the blade passage
opposing this arc are Iilled with stagnant steam Irom the disc chamber.
· Owing to the rotation oI the disc , the steam Iilling this passage is entrained
by centriIugal Iorce and moves Irom the roots to tips oI moving blade;
· Steam can even Ilow Irom one side oI the blade to the opposite side
agram of wndage currents n a partal admsson turbne stages
·The work associated with this motion oI the steam in blade passages oI the inactive portion oI the
arc oI moving blades, is lost-- usual energy oI the turbine stage is decreased by the energy loss
associated wit this motion ( windage) oI steam in blade passages
Gland leakage losses
The steam leaked out Irom the system does not work on the blades, it represents
energy loss
1.Diaphragm leakage
· It takes place in stages through the radial clearance between the stationary nozzle
diaphragm and the shaIt or drum.
2.Tip leakage
· It occurs in stages through the clearance between the outer periphery oI the moving
blades and the casing due to the pressure diIIerence existing across the blade.
3.ShaIt leakage
· ShaIt leakage occurs through radial clearance between the shaIt and casing at both
high and low pressure ends oI turbines.
· At the high pressure end , steam leaks out to the atmosphere, whereas at the LP
end, the pressure being less than the atmospheric , air leaks into the shell

g-
Between a daphragm and the shaft

b ÷
Between the banding oI moving
blades and the stator ( diaphragm and
shaIt)
G
r
Between a diaphragm and disc at the
roots oI moving blades
· Diaphragm and tip leakage can be minimized by reducing the radial
clearances ,but it must avoid metal to metal contact. The clearance may be
as low as 0.5 mm.
· Proper balancing oI the rotor both static and dynamic is must to avoid any
such rubbing.
· Seals like labyrinth, carbon rings ,water or steam seals ,or gland leak oII
plays vital role to arrest the above kind oI leakages.
#esidual velocity loss
W Steam leaving the last stage of the turbine has certain velocity,
which represent the amount of kinetic energy that cannot be
imparted to the turbine shaft and thus it is wasted
Exhaust end loss
1. Exhaust end loss occur between the last stage of low pressure
turbine and condenser inlet.
2. Exhaust loss depends on the absolute steam velocity.
Turbine Exhaust end loss = Expansion-line -end point - Used energy end
point.
Turn-up loss
Total Exhaust
Loss
ross hood
loss
Actual leaving
loss
Annulus
restriction loss
Annulus Velocity (fps)
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Annulus velocity (It/sec)
Condenser Ilow
rate
Annulus area
Percentage oI Moisture at
the Expansion line end
point
Typical exhaust loss curve showing distribution of component loss
SP.Volume
External losses
There are some energy losses in the bearings and governing mechanisms
which can be reduced by improving the lubrication systems.
ther Losses

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Problems in Low pressure turbine
· In the case oI condensing turbines the last Iew stages usually operate under
conditions at which steam is wet resulting in the Iormulation oI minute droplets
oI water.
· These droplets under the inIluence oI centriIugal Iorce are thrown out towards
the periphery. At the same time these droplets oI water receive an accelerating
Iorce Irom the steam particles in the direction oI Ilow .
· Thus some oI the kinetic energy oI the Ilowing steam is lost in accelerating
these water droplets. Since the absolute velocity oI the steam is considerably
greater than that oI the water droplets into the moving blade passages.
· The water droplets are deIlected onto the back oI the moving blades as a result
oI which the moving blades experience an impact Iorce caused by
impingement oI the moving blades as a result oI which moving blades
experience an impact Iorce caused by the impingement oI water droplets on
their backs.
· It has been Iound Irom the practical investigations that the blade tips are
subiected to wear Irom one side water droplets present in the last Iew stages can
also result in erosion damage oI turbine blades and nozzles .
· One oI the loss mechanisms in the steam turbine is the kinetic energy oI the
steam as it leaves the last stage blade. The lower the kinetic energy, the higher
the steam turbine eIIiciency will be.
· The magnitude oI loss is proportional to the square oI the ratio oI the volume
Ilow rate oI the steam through the last stage oI the steam turbine and the
annulus area oI the turbine exit.
· To decrease the loss, a larger turbine exit annulus area is needed. An increase in
the last stage blade annulus area can be accomplished by either using shorter
blades mounted on a larger diameter rotor (larger 'hub¨) or by using longer
blades mounted on a smaller diameter rotor.
· The low-pressure turbine exhaust end is one oI the important Iactors aIIecting the
turbine perIormance. The size oI the exhaust end is determined by the number oI
exhaust Ilows and the length oI the last stage blades.
· In general, the larger the exhaust ends, the lower the Iull load net heat rate. Under
the part-load conditions, however, turbines with a large exhaust end will deteriorate
more rapidly in perIormance.
· The blades are lengthened Irom stage to stage to allow the expansion oI steam. As a
result, a small industrial turbine may be more or less conical in shape, with its
smallest diameter at the high-pressure end and it`s largest at the low-pressure end.

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