The stepper motor needs a power circuit and a sequence circuit for changing phase.What is a Stepper Motor? ‡ The stepper motor is a motor which takes input pulses and then takes proportional steps to input these signals. . You can use for positioning and/or speed control for most any applications.

When to use ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Whenever discrete steps are required High torque at low speeds When precision positioning is required To eliminate closed loop control (stepper motors can operate in open loop) .

How stepper motors work 1)Current flows through the coil creating a magnetic field 2)A metallic core channels the field perpendicular to the rotor 3)Depending on the polarity of the field an attraction or repulsion drives the rotor .

As long as the coils remain energized the rotor will remain stagnant. ‡ By energizing coils the correct sequence the motor will discretely rotate .How stepper motors work ‡ If a coil is energized the closes rotor edges will be attracted to that coil.

Permanent-magnet 3.Types of stepper motors 1. Variable-reluctance 2. Hybrid .

VariableVariable-reluctance (VR) Variable-reluctance motors are not very common but easy to understand ‡ Rotor ± made of soft iron and has multiple teeth ‡ Stator ± wound type stator If the stators are energized with DC current the poles are magnetized and the rotor is attracted to the stator .

PermanentPermanent-magnet (PM) ‡ Rotor ± magnetized with alternating north and south poles situated in a straight line parallel to the shaft ‡ Stator ± wound type stator Characteristics ‡ Low Cost ‡ Low Precision ‡ High Torque .

Hybrid Like the name implies the hybrid motor is a combination of VR and PM motors. The rotor has teeth and axially concentric magnets around its shaft characteristics: ‡ More Expensive ‡ Better step resolution ‡ Better torque ‡ Better speed .

TYPES OF WINDING ‡ 1) Unipolar winding arrangement ‡ 2) Bipolar winding arrangement .

‡ Each winding has one common wire and two coil-end wires ‡ Current does not need to be reversed to change the magnetic pole ‡ Easily controlled with a Stepper motor controller .Unipolar Winding Arrangement ‡ Has two windings for each phase (one for each direction of current).

Bipolar Winding Arrangement ‡ Has only one winding per phase ‡ Current must be reversed to change the magnetic pole ‡ More difficult to control than the unipolar winding ‡ Each phase has two leads (there is no common) .

Controlling a Stepper Motor Microcontrollers are often used to control stepper motors because: ‡ Compatible with the discrete movements of steppers ‡ Fast ‡ Can easily be programmed to work with steppers of other types .

How to pick 1. Determine the torque required for your application 4. weight and power requirements . Factor in the size. Determine the resolution needed .unipolar or bipolar stator winding 3."step angle´(number of degrees the shaft turns per input signal) 2. Choose a winding scheme .

Lower end hobby stepper motors are under $2 while larger high end motor can be hundreds of dollars.Cost The cost of Stepper motors varies greatly depending on the required specifications. .

Example Applications Machine Tools ‡ X-Y and X-Y-Z Positioning Process Control ‡ Main Conveyor Drive ‡ Assembly Line parts positioning Business Machines ‡ Copy Machine.positioning the matrix print head .lens positioning and paper feed Computer Peripherals ‡ Printer.

Advantages ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Rotation angle is proportional to input pulse Motor has full torque at standstill Precise positioning and repeatability of movement Excellent response start/stop/reverse Open loop control possible Achieve low speed with a directly couple load Realize a wide range of speeds Inexpensive relative to other motion control systems Easy to set up and use Overload safe. Motor cannot be damaged by mechanical overload .

Torque drops rapidly with speed (torque is the inverse of speed). Motor draws substantial power regarldess of load. Low accuracy.Disadvantages ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Low efficiency. Motor will not ³pick up´ after momentary overload Motor is audibly very noisy at moderate to high speeds. . 1:2000 at light loads. Low output power for size and weight. Prone to resonances. Requires microstepping to move smoothly. 1:200 at full load. No feedback to indicate missed steps. Low torque to inertia ratio. Cannot accelerate loads very rapidly Motor gets very hot in high performance configurations.


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