IT Concepts Chapter: 01

Introduction to Computer System
Muhammad Babar

Computer System
‡ The word ³computer´ is derived from the Latin word ³compute´ which means to compute or calculate ‡ With this meaning a computer is considered to be a calculating device that can perform arithmetic operations in less mount of time ‡ Computer 80% were used for Mathematical Operations

‡ But today¶s computers perform a lot of jobs like
± arithmetic operations, ± text based work, ± graphical work ± Videos ± Audio ± etc


What Is a Computer?
‡ Computer is a device that operates on Data/Information ‡ Computer is an electronic device which takes data (data may be numbers, letters or both or even sounds) from input device (keyboard), processes it with a high electronic speed and gives the result as output


‡ A computer is an electronic device that can
± accept data (input), ± process the data according to specified rules or instructions, ± produce results (output), and ± store the results (storage) for future use.




‡ All computers are electronic device and using D.C (Direct current) ‡ Data moves inside computer electrically


Characteristics of a computer System
‡ Almost everybody works on computer to solve their problems ‡ Computer is used that much because of its characteristics ‡ Following are some of the characteristics due to which computer is considered to be so useful and helpful


‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Speed Accuracy Diligence Power of remembering No feelings


‡ Speed:
± Computer is a very fast device ± It can perform the amount of work in few seconds that a human being can do in whole year

‡ Accuracy:
± The accuracy of a computer is consistently high and the degree of accuracy of a particular computer depends on its design ± Errors may occur in a computer, but these are mainly due to human beings rather than technological weakness,

‡ Diligence
± Human beings get bored from monotony ± If they work on the same thing for a long time, they get bored and also become tired ± Unlike human beings, a computer is free from monotony, tiredness, etc. ± thus it can work for hours without creating any error.

‡ Power of remembering:
± A computer can store and recall any amount of information ± Every piece of information can be retained as long as desired by the user and can be recalled as when required

‡ No feelings:
± Computers are free of emotions ± They have no feelings because they are machines ± they work for us day and night without any difficulty


Elements/Components of Computer System
‡ A computer system is the combination of the following five/six elements: 1. Hardware 2. Software 3. People 4. Procedures 5. Data/Information 6. Connectivity


1. Hardware:
‡ The machines in computer system are known as hardware ‡ The Physical and real components are called Hardware ‡ Hardware are divided into Four Groups:
± Input Hardware ± Storage Hardware ± Processing Hardware ± Output Hardware


‡ Two types of Software
± System Software ± Application Software


3. People
‡ Computer system is
± designed by the people, ± Built by the people and ± Used by the people

‡ People operate the computer Hardware as well as develop computer software ‡ Peoples are grouped as :
± System/ Software Developers ± System/ Software Administrators ± System/ Software Operators/users


4. Procedures
‡ Procedures means Rules, Policies, Methods, Techniques required to use the Computer system ‡ These procedures are learn by the user and then applied on the computer to complete a task ‡ If a user don¶t the method How to use the computer system he will not be able to do his work using the computer system

5. Data/Information
‡ All facts and figures or instructions in raw form are called data ‡ This raw material is processed into useful information ‡ In other words, information is the product of data processing (means a processed data is called information)


Raw facts, figures, and symbols

Processes data into information
Data that is organized, meaningful, and useful

Produces and stores results


Types of Data
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Text/ Numeric data Graphical data Video data Audio data


‡ If two or more than two computer system wants to share the data they needs Connectivity ‡ Computers are connected by two ways:
± Wire/ Guided Media ± Wireless/ Unguided Media


‡ End of Chapter 01


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