!T Concepts !

T Concepts
Chapter: 02
Organization of Computer System
Muhammad Babar Muhammad Babar
2
Orqonizofion of Compufer Sysfem
The internal structure of the computer system
differs from one system model to another
system model
The basic Organization remains the same for
all computers
&nifs of Compufer Sysfem
nput Unit
Processing Unit
Output Unit
Storage Unit
3
Componenfs of Compufer Sysfem
4
!nput
Process
Output
npuf &nif
nput is the process of entering and translating
data into machine readable form so that it can
be processed by a computer in order to
produce the output
The data entered into the computer known as
input
nput device is a device through which data
are entered and transformed into machine
readable form
6
Types of npuf Device
eyboard
Mouse
Trackball
Joystick
Touch Screen
Track Point
Touch Pad
Light Pen
Scanner
BCR
7
Ieyboord:
The keyboard is an essential input device
t has typewriter like key with some
additional keys
There are different types of keyboard used
with the computer system have a certain
number of features in common:
Standard typewriter keys.
Function eys.
Special Purpose eys.
Cursor movement eys.
Numeric eys.
8
Mouse:
Mouse is a hand held input device
connected to the computer by a small cable
Doug Engelbart developed the mouse for
the first time in 1960s
The mouse which has a ball on its
underside is rolled on a flat surface
9
The rolling movement corresponding to the
movement of the cursor on the screen
Processing various keyboard keys can also move
the cursor
We can communicate to the computer by
pressing a button on top of the mouse
The mouse has three buttons but the left most is
commonly used
10
11
Trock 8oII
variation on the mouse is the trackball
The trackball is like an upside-down mouse
t has a ball on the top and you can roll the
ball directly with your hand
The popularity of the trackball raised with the
advent of the laptop computers
Trackballs are often built-in on portable
computers, but they can also be used as
separate input devices
12
13
Joysfick
joystick is an input device that enables you
to move cursor, word, line, page, object and
pictures from one point to another on the
display screen
joystick uses a lever to control the position
of the cursor
Ti performs the same function as of arrow
keys in the keyboard, but it is fat and gives
you eight-direction movement as compared to
four
t is mostly used in video games.
14
15
Touch Screen
The touch screen registers input when a finger
or other object comes in contact with the
screen
Two touch screen techniques involve infrared
beams and ultrasonic acoustic waves
Touch screen have long been used in military
applications
Today because they have been less
expensive, touch screens are found in many
applications
16
18
Trock Poinf
The mouse is not practical for people using a
portable computer in a small space
Some notebook computers provide a mouse
substitute called a track point
button that protrudes from the middle of the
keyboard
With a track point you imitate mouse
movements by pushing the button from side to
side
19
Touch Pod
Many laptop computers use a touchpad in
front of the keyboard
You move your finger on the pad to move the
cursor on the screen
When you want to click, you can tap the pad
or use the buttons in front of the pad, which
work like mouse buttons
22
Liqhf Pen
The light pen looks like an ordinary pen, but its
tip is light sensitive detector
The light pen uses a light-sensitive
photoelectric cell to signal screen positions to
the computer
Light pens are frequently used by graphic
designers and drafting engineers.
24
25
Sconner
scanner works very much like a
photocopier, but a scanner digitizes the
information into a computer, not onto the
other piece of paper
n a process called imaging, a scanner
converts a drawing, a picture, on any
document into computer recognizable form
26
Scanners take an electronic picture of the printed
page, break each image into thousands of light
and dark dots that can be stored in the computer
Then software in the computer tells it how to
interpret the dot patterns
27
Scanners consist of two components
First a data capturing subsystem light-up the document
so the image can be recorded
Then an image-processing subsystem uses
sophisticated software to convert the optical images
into digital form and store the date in a file
Scanners come in both handheld and desktop
models
28
29
8CP (8or Coded Peoder)
Data coded in the form of light and dark lines
or bars are known as bar codes
Bar codes are used particularly by the retail
trade for labeling goods
BCR is a device used for reading bar coded
data
30
Bar code reading is performed by laser beam
scanner, which is linked to the computer
nterpretation of the code is based on the
width of lines rather than the location of the
bar code
31
Z Processinq &nif
CPU
Central Processing Unit
Central: because it is the center for data
processing
Processor: because it process/execute data
Unit: it is a chip which contain several internal
parts
32
33
34
CPU is main unit inside the computer which is
responsible for events that occur inside the
Computer system
The operation performed by the Processor is
called nstruction-Set
nstruction set determine the Machine
language for CPU
35
The more complex nstruction set the more the
CPU working slowly
CPU differ from one another by nstruction-set
f same program execute/run on the two
different computers then these computers are
called Compatible
BM & pple computers are not compatible
36
CP& nfernoI porfs
1. rithmetic Logic Unit (LU)
2. Registers/ Memory
3. Clock Rate
4. Control Unit (CU)
37
nside fhe CP&
38
L&
The arithmetic and logic unit is the part where
actual computations take place
t consists of circuits which perform arithmetic
operations e.g.
addition,
substation,
multiplication,
division
39
These operation are performed on the data
received from the memory
LU is capable to compare numbers:
less than,
equal to,
greater than
40
Z Peqisfers
Registers are a group of data cells used for
RM/ Primary Memory data loading into it
Data is loaded from RM into Registers and
then moves to LU for Processing
Registers are high speed memory that
hold/save data for quick processing
t also hold the intermediate level result
41
Register Types:
General Registers
Ihi: pc(Iicn keep ccIive p(cc(cm ccIc
Special Purpose Registers
Ihi: pc(Iicn keep: Ihe ccIc fc( Ihe fu(Ihe(/nexI p(cce::inc
42
3 CIock &nif
ll operation performed in a computer system
are consist of thousand of separate
nstruction/ Commands
These nstruction/ Commands should follow a
specific time-intervals
These time-intervals are generated and
controlled by clock unit
Every operation takes place with a clock pulse
43
The faster the clock the faster the computer
processing
The clock rate (speed) is measured in Hertz
Hz
MHz
GHz
n older system the clock unit is external to the
CPU
But in New computer Models it exist inside
CPU
44
4 ConfroI &nif
Control Unit is responsible for managing and
coordination the entire computer system
t does not perform any kind of processing on
the data but it control and direct the input
n other words: it is central controller for all of
the activities that occurs inside CPU
(internal)or outside (external) of Computer
system
45
t interprets the instructions fetched into the
computer,
determines type of data
What operation to apply on the data
where to store the data after the operation
send the control signals to the devices involved in
the execution of the instructions
To whom give the output (Monitor/ Printer)
lso control & order the output devices for
displaying the result
46
3 Oufpuf &nif
Output is the process of translating data
from machine readable form into a form
understandable to humans
Output Unit presents the results of machine
operations in
printed or
visual form, or
on disks
47
output device allows a computer to communicate
information to human by accepting data from the
computer and transforming them into a usable
form
act as a communicating link between a computer
and the user
48
Function of Output Unit:
t accept the result produced by the computer
which is in code form
t convert these code results to Human acceptable
form
t displays the result to the user
49
The output that is obtained from a
computer system has two types
1. Soft Copy
2. Hard Copy
50
Soff Copy
The results (text/graphics) appear on
displayed screen are known as soft copy
t is a transparent form of output and is lost
when the computer is turned off
if the data needed to create a soft copy
have been saved on disk or tapes, the soft
copy can be reproduced on the screen any
time
51
Hord Copy
The results (text/Graphics) printed on paper
is known as Hard Copy
t is considered to a permanent copy and
can be retained even if the computer is
turned off
52
Soff Copy Devices:
The main soft copy device is the monitor
device
monitor is television like device used to
display data or information.
Monitors allow the users to view the
results of processing
53
There are two main types of monitors which are:
1. CRT (Cathode Ray Tube)
2. LCD (Liquid Crystal Display)
54
1 CRT (Cuthode Ruy Tube)
On this type of screen, a data image is
produced by an electron beam
The most common type of CRT has a
display screen of 25 lines of 80 characters
each (Other sizes are also available)
The CRT's screen display is made of
small picture elements, called pixels
The smaller the pixels, the better the image
clarity.
55
56
Z LCD
The most common type of flat-panel display
is the liquid-crystal display (LCD)
LCD uses a clear liquid chemical trapped
in tiny pocket of liquid is covered both front
and back by very thin wires
The advantages of the LCD monitors are:
low power consumption
low cost and
small size
57
58
Hord Copy devices
mong a wide variety of hard copy output
devices printers, and plotters are used the
most.
1. Printers
2. Plotters
59
printer is an output device that can
convert electrical signals into printers on
papers and provides a permanent visual
record of data
The results we get through the printer is
called printout or hard copy
There are two main types of printers.
1. mpact printers
2. Non-impact printers
60
mpocf Prinfer
n impact printer makes contact with the
paper
t usually forms the print image by
pressing an inked ribbon against the
paper using a hammer or pins
Prints one character at a time at speeds
10 to 500 characters per second
Thus, form the slowest class of printers.
Following are some impact printers:
a) Dot Matrix Printer
b) Line Printer
61
o Dof Mofrix Prinfers
The dot-matrix uses print heads containing
from 9 to 24 pins
These pins produce patterns of dots on the
paper to form the individual character
The 24-pin dot-matrix printer produces
more dots than a 9-pin dot-matrix printer,
which results in much clearer characters
62
The user can produce a color output with a dot-
matrix printer (the user will change the black
ribbon with a ribbon that has color stripes)
Dot-matrix printers are inexpensive and typically
print at speeds of 100-600 characters per second.
63
b Line Prinfer
n business where large amount of material
are printed, the character at a time printers
are slow
users need line at a time line printers
Line printers or line-at-a-time printers use
special mechanism that can print a whole
line at once
66
They can typically print in the range of 1200-6000
lines per minute.
Drum, chain, and band printers are line-at-a-time
printers.
67
68
Z on-mpocf Prinfer
Non-impact printers do not use a striking
device to produce characters on the paper
these printers do not hammer against the
paper
Following are some non-impact printers:
1. nk-jet Printer
2. Laser Printer
70
nk-Jef Prinfer
nk-jet printers work in the same fashion as
dot-matrix printers in that they form images
or characters with little dots
However, the dots are formed by tiny drops
of ink
nk-jet printers form characters on paper by
spraying ink from tinny nozzles at a speed
of approximately 250 characters per
second
Several manufacturers produce color ink-jet
printers
71
Z Loser Prinfer
laser printer works like a photocopy
machine
Laser printer produce images on paper by
directing a laser beam at the mirror which
bounces the beam onto the drum
s the paper rolls by the drum, the toner is
transferred to the paper printing a letter or
other graphics on the paper
74
Laser printers use buffers that store an entire
page at a time
When a whole page is loaded, it will be printed
The speed of laser printer ranges from 8 to 437
pages per minute if each page contains the 48
lines
75
Z PIoffer
plotter is an output device designed to
produce high-quality graphics in a variety of
colors
The plotter is used to give very neat best
quality to the graphics
Plotter is useful for the engineers, artists,
designers, architects to make graphics
when the size output is more than one page
78
There are two basic types of plotters:
those that use pens and
(um cnc f|cILec p|cIIe( LcIh u:e Ihe pen:
those that don't use pens
|ecI(c:IcIic p|cIIe(: ccn´I u:e Ihe pen:
Following are types of Plotters:
1. Flatbed Plotters
2. Drum Plotters
3. Electrostatic Plotters
79
Drum PIoffer
80
FIofbed PIoffer
81
FIofbed PIoffer
82
EIecfrosfofic PIoffers
83
EIecfrosfofic PIoffer
84
Memory/ Sforoqe Devices
The storage hardware provides the
capability/ability to store data and program
instructions.
There are two types of storage devices.
1. Primary Storage Devices
2. Secondary Storage Devices
85
4te:
the process of entering data into storage
(primary storage or secondary storage) is
called riting
the process of retrieving data from primary
storage or secondary storage is called
#eading
86
Primory sforoqe device
t is also known as magnetic core memory
t is a device which stores information in the
form of binary coded data
t is a medium capable of recording and
storing information quickly
This device holds input data before being
processed, also results for output purposes
(after processing)
87
This memory is also known as internal memory
The primary storage refers to the internal storage
of the computer, where program and their data
are stored temporarily storage during program
execution
primary storage is located inside the computer
and is linked directly to the other components of
the CPU, access time to the data is very fast.
88
Types of Primory Sforoqe
i. RM (Random ccess Memory)
ii. ROM (Read Only Memory)
iii. PROM (Programmable Read Only Memory)
iv. EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read Only
Memory)
v. EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable
Read Only Memory)
vi. Buffer
vii. Cache Memory
viii. Flash Memory
89
i PM
Random ccess Memory
RM is the part of primary storage where
data and program instructions are held
temporarily while being manipulating or
executing
The information stored in RM can be
accessed easily and randomly and hence
called primary memory
The data stored in this part of the memory
can be read, changed or erased completely
and thus refer to Read and write Memory
90
PM
91
92
OId Pom
93
RM is also known as temporary memory
because, RM depends on a steady supply of
electricity to maintain data storage
means that the information stored in it is lost
when the computer is switched off or the light
goes off
RM is also referred to as a Volatile Memory
because stored data disappears whenever the
computer is switched off.
94
When the computer is powered on, RM
takes the data and the programs to be
used. The access time for the data stored
in RM generally ranges from a
microsecond (million part of a second) to a
few nanoseconds (billion part of a second).
t is also called as main memory.
95
ii POM
Read Only Memory
s the name implies the contents of the
ROM, the data can be accessed or read
any time but can not be changed or
removed or written to it
ROM is referred to as Nonvolatile storage
medium
96
the information stored in ROM is permanent and
is not lost due to light failure or switching off of the
computer
ROM may contain information about how to start
the computer and even instruction to the entire
operating system
Bootstrap (boot startup Program)
PL (initial Program Loader)
The ROM contents are unchangeable and
permanent
97
POM-8OS: 8osic npuf Oufpuf Sysfem
98
nside 8OS:
99
iii PPOM
Programmable Read Only Memory
PROM in the beginning are empty chips
Nothing programmed or recorded inside PROM
The data is recorded on them with special
programming device, which then becomes
permanent like ROM
PROMs are normally programmed by the
manufacturer who records dedicated
programs such as graphics and games
100
PPOM
101
iv EPPOM
Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
n EPROM chip has the feature of PROM
(means EPROM are also empty chips like PROM)
The data is also recorded on them with special
programming devices, but the difference is
that the data can be erased and
reprogrammed whenever it is required
The data is erased with ultraviolet light
102
EPPOM:
103
v EEPPOM
Electrically Erasable Programmable Read
Only Memory
EEPROM has all the characteristics of
EPROM except the difference of erasing
technique i.e.
it uses electrical pulses instead of ultraviolet
light for erasing.
Erasing of data can be achieved by using
keyboard commands without removing
chips physically from the computer
104
vi 8uffer
t's a temporary holding/saving memory for
Data
t may be built into devices used to input/
output data
input & output device are much slower than
CPU
Buffer act as intermediary between CPU & any
other input/ output devices e.g.
CPU to Printer/NC/Scanner/Modem/Monitor
t's a volatile memory
105
vii Coche Memory
lso known as High speed Buffer
ts very High speed memory used to speed of
the Processor
by making available Programs & data to CPU
The speed of CPU is high than main memory
or any other device
Cache memory is technique used to
harmonize the speed of devices
The speed of CPU with the speed of Main memory
106
Cache used to store temporary
segments of Programs/data currently being
executed and or
data frequently needed in executing program
t's a volatile memory
107
viii FIosh Memory
t's a Nonvolatile memory
Flash memory permanently store the data
Secondary memory also store the data
permanently but they much slower than Flash
Memory
used in Phones, iphones, flight recorder
devices, Notebook computers, handheld
devices
108
FIosh Memory
109
Z Secondory Sforoqe Device
The term secondary storage is also known
as auxiliary storage, external storage,
backup storage or long-term storage
secondary storage is a device into which
information can be
introduced (input),
stored and
the information obtained
The information can be erased.
110
This storage device designed to retain data
and instructions in a more permanent form
means that computers have the ability to store
Ihei( p(cc(cm:.
Ihe inpuI ccIc cnc
Ihe inIe(mecicIe cnc
finc| (e:u|I: cf iI: cc|cu|cIicn: pe(mcnenI|y
111
Secondary storage is non-volatile,
meaning that the data and instructions remain stored
even when the computer is turned off
n this unit, data can be permanently stored
usually in the form of magnetize spot on
magnetic material
t contains vast mass of data a computer can
deal with
Data is recorded in the form of binary digits either
1 or 0 known as bits
112
Funcfions of Secondory sforoqe
devices
1. To provide long-term storage to data and
programs, which are not being executed
2. To give additional memory to the computer to
save data and provide backup to primary
memory
3. To provide permanent storage so that
electricity failure or switching off of the
computer does not harm or lose the data.
113
Types of Secondory Sforoqe Devices
There are several types of secondary
storage devices in use
They each have advantages and
disadvantages
Some are efficient but too expensive for many
computer applications
Some have extra large capacity, others are
fast.
114
three types of secondary storage devices:
i. Magnetic Tape
ii. Magnetic Disk
iii. Optical Technology
115
i Moqnefic Tope
Magnetic tape was introduced in 1957
The development of magnetic tape was
stimulated by the search for a faster, more
convenient, and more cost effective
means than punched cards
magnetic tape is ½ or ¼ inch wide
produced in a variety of ranging from 200
to 3,600 feet
116
modern tape storage can store the equivalent
of more than 2.25 million punched card
Following are the types of Magnetic Tape.
a. Reel-to-reel Tape
b. Cassette Tape
117
o PeeI fo PeeI fope
118
b Cosseffe Tope
119
Moqnefic Disk
The advantages of magnetic disk over
magnetic tape are:
1. The ability to access the data stored on it
directly
2. The ability to hold more data in a smaller
space
3. The ability to perform faster data transfer
speeds.
120
Types of Moqnefic Disks

two types of magnetic disks
i. Floppy Disk
ii. Hard Disk
121
i FIoppy Disks
One of the most commonly used storage
media is floppy disk
floppy diskette also called simply a
diskette or disk
t has been around since the early 1970s
and was originally 8 inches diameter.
They are often referred to "floppy¨
because they are made of flexible
material
122
FIoppy disk
123
The disk is enclosed in a protective jacket-either
paper or plastic-lined with a soft material
The diskette sizes are:
1. 8-inch
2. 5½-inch
3. 3½-inch
124
The initial diskette introduced by BM was
8 inches in diameter
t was the standard for many years
The use of 5½-inch diskette by BM in their
personal computer system in 1981
Since the pple introduced the 3½-inch
diskette in 1984 and
BM switched to this size in 1987 in its PS/2
microcomputer system
125
lthough the 3½-inch diskettes
are smaller in size, they are capable of storing more
data than 5½-inch diskettes and
they are also covered by a hard plastic jacket than a
paper jacket.
n initial stage, the diskettes were single-sided
but nowadays diskette disks are double-sided
disks
126
FIoppy disks
127
ii Hord disk
when BM first invented the hard disk in
1954
the capacity of which was only 5MB
25 years later, Seagate Technology
introduced the first hard disk drive for
personal computers
which had the capacity of 40MB and
data transfer rate of 625 Bps
128
later version of the company's ST506 interface
increased both capacity and speed
ts hard to believe that as recently as the late
1980s 100MB of hard disk space was considered
generous.
Today, this would be totally insufficient, hardly to
install the operating system alone,
let alone a huge application software such as
Microsoft Office.
today's hard disks are by GBs even TB
129
Hord disk
130
nside Hord disk
131
132
nside HDD
133
134
iii OpficoI TechnoIoqy
Optical technology involves the use of the
laser beams
n this technology, a laser hit a layer of
metallic material spread over the surface of
a disk
heat from the laser tiny (small) spots/pits
on the disc surface that actually identify
that the data is being exist
135
When these optical discs are placed on a disc
playback devices/ Disk Drives,
To read the data the laser scans the disc
a beam of laser light is used to read the pit pattern and
convert these pit pattern into the audio/visual signals
needed to produce sounds and pictures
136
The capacity of optical disc systems is large as
compared to most magnetic disk storage devices
This technology promises a storage capacity in
access of 100 GB for a single 12-inch disc
5¼-inch disc the same size as a diskette can
store between 800 MB and 1 GB
137
Types of OpficoI Discs:
1. CD-ROM
2. CD-R
3. WORM
4. EOD
5. CD-RW
6. DVD
138
i CD-POM
Compact Disc-Read-Only Memory
Most popular and least expensive type of
optical disk
Mostly the data on the CD-Rom is written
Once the data written by the Manufacturer of
disk
The user is not able to:
Write the data
Change the data
Erase the data
139
CD-Pom
140
CD-POM & CD-POM Drive
141
CD-drive
142
Data in Written and Read via Laser beam/
Ultraviolet
Can store up to 650MB
Size is 120 mm in diameter
These disk are different in speed
Original CD-Rom transfer data rate is 150000
bps (150bs)
Slow speed than Hard disk/ Floppy disk
143
ii CD-P
Compact Disc-Readable
Laser is used to write the data inside the CD-R
These disc are write once
Once the data written to CD-R then user is not
able to write, change, delete the data
Less expensive disc
144
iii OPM
Write once, Read Many
Once the disc is written the data can be read
many times but can not be altered, delete
This technology introduced in 1980
Mainly used for saving of large amount of
sensitive data of organizations
WORM discs are imprinted by Manufacturer
145
iv ErosobIe OpficoI disc/EOD
The discs are an alternative to the large
capacity hard disks
n contrast to CD-ROM and CD-R erasable
discs can be changed and erased
Data is written or read by using laser beam
Used to backup fixed hard disks
146
v CD-P
Compact disc-Rewritable
These are Recordable CDs format that
provides full Read/Write capabilities
These are more expensive than other CDs
147
148
vi DVD
Digital video disc
Digital versatile disc
Capable of storing more data up to 17GB with
data transfer rate more than 12Mbps (equal to
Hard disk speed)
DVDs are accessed by DVD Drives not by
CD-Drives
While DVD drives can play CD and DVD
149
150
DVD
151
DVD
152
DVD drive
153
Compufer Soffwore
Software means a sequence of instruction
given to computer to perform a specific task
Software consist of step by step instruction
that direct the computer device to complete a
function
n other words: we can say that the set of
instruction that
take the data from input devices,
manipulate and process the data,
then sent it to the output
154
Software are the controller of
Computer Hardware
Other computer Software
Programmer:
the person who write the computer Program
(instruction set) by using different kinds of
LNGUGES
Programs written in computer languages are
known as Software
155
Computer Software:
1. Computer Language
2. System Software
3. pplication Software
156
Soffwore Types
Computer
Software
Languages
High Level
Language
Low Level
Language
System
Software
Operating
System
Translator
pplication
Software
pplication
Packages
Customized
Packages
157
Compufer Lonquoqes
Language is the source of communication
To communicate with the computer, user need
to use the language that computer can
understand
Divided into two types:
Low level languages
High level languages
158
Low IeveI Ionquoqe:
Low level languages are machine codes or
close to it
Computer can not understand instructions
given in high level language or in English
Computer understand and execute instruction
given in low level language
Types of low level language:
Machine language
ssembly language
159
Hiqh IeveI Ionquoqe
High level language are instruction/code
closer to English language
Purpose of developing high level languages is
to enable people to write programs easily
High level language do not directly control
computer Hardware
HLL are translated into machine language
which then control computer hardware
160
Types of High level languages:
Basic
C#
VB .NET
PHP
SP
SP.NET
JV
161
Z Sysfem Soffwore
System software are programs which hold
instruction related with the controlling of
hardware and software of computer System
System software acts as Controller/
Supervisor and responsible for controlling of
input, processing and output of data
System software also known as Firmware
This software keep record of all peripherals
equipment attached with the computer
162
Types of System Software
Operating System
Translator
163
Operating System:
Set of programs that manage the computer
Hardware & Software
Windows, Unix, Linux
Translator
Set of Programs that translate the Source Program
into Machine program
Types:
::emL|e(
Ccmpi|e(
lne(p(eIe(
164
3 ppIicofion Soffwore
pplication Software also known as Packages
These are the software developed by Expert in
high/low level languages for Non-expert users
fter getting training in Packages a user will
become able to handle his work by computer
Program
Purpose of developing pplication software is
to facilitate all fields of life
165
Types of pplication Software
pplication Packages
Customized Packages
166
ppIicofion Pockoqe
These programs are developed by famous
software development companies
P are:
Word Processor: Word Star, MS word, MS Work
Spread sheet: lotus, excel, Quattro-pro
Data base: Dbase, FoxPro, Oracle
Games: speed, G, prince,
Educational Medicine, Commerce,
Engineering,
167
Cusfomized Soffwore
The software developed according to the
requirements of and Organization

These software are designed for specific
organization keeping in view their needs
These software can be developed either by a
single or a group of programmer (s)
168
Types of Customized Software:
Banking
Defense
Stock & Sale
ccounts
Library
Education
169
nd Of Chapter
170

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer: Get 4 months of Scribd and The New York Times for just $1.87 per week!

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times