Mixed Farming in Backyard Poultry System It s Prospective & Constraints

Presented By
S. Shwetha kanthi RVM/09-24 Dept of Veterinary Extension

Mixed Farming in backyard

Definition
Mixed farming in back yard poultry can be defined as house hold system of practise in a particular house to sustain and satisfy the multiple essential needs of the family nutrition

Bringing crops and live stock into an interactive relationship with the expectations, that together as opposed to alone they will generate positive effects on outcomes of interests such as profitability and productivity and conversion of non renewable resources
-Allen et al-2007

Advantages 
Mixed back yard farming provides various animal species, the flexibility to change from one species to the other, and the low-external-input nature of the management system.  Most families base their livestock keeping on diversified husbandry practices : poultry and pigs scavenge around and do not require major labour or capital input,  cuy (guinea pig) are kept in the kitchen, fed on leftovers.  Though there is high mortality amongst these animals, their output is produced against very low cost.

sheep and goats including small numbers of poultry in backyard to meet their domestic needs.  Animals are raised on agricultural waste.. buffaloes. .  Farmers keep cows.Cont«.  The animal power is used for agricultural operation and the dung is used as manure and fuel.

3035% savings in fertilizers  It may be possible to reach the some level of yield with proportionately less input in the integrated farming .  Good amount of feed for animals is available from the system itself  The farmyard manure .Cont««.manuring of crops.

and socially acceptable. and A. environmentally sustainable.H have been proved to be economically viable. . forestry.Mixed farming involving diversified components such as agriculture. technically feasible.

annual plants. growing mixtures of fruit trees.. squatter or landless peasant practised mixed farming on small holdings. etc. vegetables. and tethered pigs.Who are practicing  The small landholder.  All can be reared on domestic waste. goats or cattle on roadsides or open lands. . and rearing free-range poultry for eggs and meat. sheep.

Models of Mixed Farming INCOME GARDEN HUMAN INTER CROP BIRDS MANURE MEAT AND EGGS .

rotation and mixed farming provide grain and enough straw to meet human and animal needs.  Multi-purpose objectives .Features of mixed farming  Assured subsistence is high priority  Mixed cropping and livestock common for risk coverage  local resources ²including human resources  Recycle all products  Crop varieties.

is sold .Features of mixed farming  Sizeable population of small animals in semi-arid and arid areas  Are easy to manage and to sell  Observed through generations  Use of high yielding varieties of crops or livestock and of chemical fertilisers and pesticides is minimal  Storage of produce for family use has priority and only surplus. if any.

1999)  Study together with the awareness that crops and animals have multiple functions  Each individual unit should contribute a minimum of 18-20% to their counterparts . Schiere et al.. which together should act as a whole  They thus need to be studied in their entirety and not as separate parts  That principle is here referred to as the "command ideotype´ (Donald.Principles of farming  Mixed backyard farms are systems that consist of different parts. 1981.

Geographical distribution.based on land size. type of crops and animals .Forms of mixed backyard farming  Mixed farming systems can be classified in many ways .  On-farm versus between-farm  Mixing within crops and/or animal systems  Diversified versus integrated systems . market orientation. etc.

Holistic nature DAIRY CROPS FISHERY HOUSE HOLD AND MARKET POULTRY PIG FORESTRY .

commercial  Poultry + Cows and buffaloes  Poultry + Agri farming  Poultry + Piggery  Poultry + Sheep and goat  Poultry + Fish farming  Poultry + Azolla + Duck farming .Methods .

POULTRY + LARGE ANIMALS .

POULTRY + LARGE ANIMALS .

DUCK + FISH FARMING .

China POULTRY+PIGGERY .

POULTRY + AZOLLA + DUCK FARMING .

Rice-poultry-fish Rice crop as per recommended practice Irrigated through fish pond water Rice bran for poultry feed Rice bran and straw in fish pond Recycling of crop residues Poultry excreta to rice field .

Cashew apple waste  Dm-18%  Cf-8.5%  20% feed of vanaraja -kari kanthimath et al .

.  Eggs from scavenging chickens in mixed farming systems are preferred to eggs from the commercial farms.  Scavenging chickens can be fed with waste products and grains to supplement the weeds and insects that are found in the backyard.Scavenging birds  Uses almost no inputs and it can still be a viable component in the mixed farm. In Nicaragua the eggs from the mixed farming system are called huevos de amor (love eggs) and people prefer them because of their yellow yolks and freshness.

except in some rare cases. for example. but they can do without water and.  Rare cases of specialized production of these animals are.Ducks and geese  Ducks and geese are basically waterfowl. high-input production. the keeping of these birds does not develop into large-scale. geese for "foie gras" (fat liver) or ducks for meat in countries such as France and China .

..  More typical for mixed farming systems is duck keeping for eggs in harvested rice fields. weeds. The occasional use of geese as "watchdogsµ in farms . where fallen grains.. such as in Java. snails and worms provide free feed for large flocks of special runner ducks kept by individuals from the village.cont.

2 kg manure/day .Fish-Back yard poultry  Farmer can practise the poultry-fish farming integrated system only when a 100 m2 fish pond can be fed with 1 kg dried poultry manure per day  15 chicken .1-1.

POULTRY + LARGE ANIMALS .

POULTRY + AGRI FARMING .

POULTRY+PIGGERY .

POULTRY+ SHEEP AND GOAT .

POULTRY + FISH FARMING .

POULTRY + AZOLLA + DUCK FARMING .

Constraints  Multi tasking  Non availability  Lack of Know-how on feed supplementing constitution  Marketing  Investment .

recycling waste.  Integrating their livestock with cropping activities.Cont««  Some smaller farmers are increasingly dependent on production methods based on a mixture of new and traditional practices.  These include utilising local natural feeds. limited aquaculture production  The limit of land availability dictates that integrated. intensive methods are risky .

Studies The integrated farming system with 4 bullocks + 2 cow + 2 buffaloes + 25 goats along with other subsidiaries like poultry and duck is the most beneficial system. .

The major interest of women in backyard poultry is as a source of small cash and nutritious food for the family at low cost. The local breeds are preferred since they are easy to manage. 3. Women are not interested in increasing the number of birds and add other species due to management difficulties and the need for external inputs it would require. 2. 1. . but the most important reason is that local birds and eggs are sold at a premium. They are able to protect themselves from predators.Rural women·s perceptions and preferences with regard to mixed farming poultry production.

Women consider diseases in chicks the major problem in poultry keeping. 5. women felt it difficult at multi tasking .Cont«« 4. Backyard poultry permit entertainment of important guests and functions. 6.

1984) .It has been calculated that 90% of rural families in central and south Bolivia earn more than 50% of their income through activities like mixed farming . (Jimenez Sardon.

such as drought or animal diseases.intensive techniques (their only resource) and. because of their low purchasing power. (Based on Slingerland. making continuation of their former way of life impossible.) .Is it a sign of improvement?  The choice of mixed farming is not always a sign of improvement. leading to severe losses in livestock.  Resource-poor farmers going into mixed farming have to apply labour.  Fulani herdsmen in West Africa engage in crop production only when forced by circumstances.  Mixed farming is for them a poverty-induced option. they cannot afford external inputs and have no option but to overexploit the environment. 2000.

Where we stand  Employing 1.000 cr to GNP  3rd Egg.30% to Egg Production Producing 41 Billion Eggs 1600 Million Meat .Y.P . 5th Meat!  B.5 million persons and contributing 35.

.  It is further suggested (Timor.  Field testing of possible interventions and new technologies  ´Test marketing" of proposed developments on representative sub populations within the region.What's the need of the hour  Research requirements in support of crop-livestocktree systems in Asia are baseline studies to quantify energy flows. 1992) that such studies need to be carried out across national boundaries within ecoregions.  Simulation studies to identify possible coefficient changes in the system.

Cont««. .F for different agro climatic regions.  Soil health aspects and nutrient flow system  Farming system developed for the poorest and land less labor  Women empowerment  Whole By analysis for house hold nutrition and income security and gain full employment for folk and youth  Creation of data base for M..

Cont«« This general situation of integrated farming practices has been mainly reversed and there are at least three aspects to this:  The search for modernisation of agriculture. .  Pressures of the wider economy on agriculture and resource use  The failure to recognise and deal with agriculture for local consumption.

animals. eggs and birds need be organised . Formation of women's groups for sale of milk.Conclusions Improved backyard poultry and goat production would not only improve income of women but would also contribute to family nutrition. women Para-extension workers Skill training For health control would be needed.

Aims  Productivity  Sustainability  Balanced diet  Clean environment  Recycling of resources  Round the year income  Adoption of new tech  Solving energy crisis  Increase standard  Increase input-out put efficiency .

Aims ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Soil and climate Future resolution Present level of resource utility Economics Managing skills Alternate land using Options Pooling and sharing of resources Consumption. preservation. Utilization of farm bio mass .

`Mixed farming in backyard · type of rearing Is a critical concept or can it be implemented ? .

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