7.

Loops & Control Constructs

1

Loops
Loop with ³if´ using goto and label Example : Demonstrates use of if for iteration #include <stdio.h> int main() { int sum=0, i=1; /*declaration and initialization combined*/ Step3: /*label- loop starts here*/ if (i<=10)
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Loops (Contd.)
{ sum= sum+i; i=i+1; goto step3; } printf(³sum of first 10 natural numbers=%d\n´, sum); } Result: sum of first 10 natural numbers=55
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for statement
for (exp1; exp2; exp3) {statements; } Note the keyword, the parentheses and semicolons. No semicolon after exp3. exp1, exp2 and exp3 are expressions. exp1 ± contains the initial value of an index or a variable. exp3 ± contains the alteration to the index after each iteration of the body of the for statement.
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for statement (Contd.)
The body of the statement is either a single statement or group of statements enclosed within braces. If a single statement has to be executed then braces are not required. exp2 ± condition that must be satisfied if the body of statements are to be executed. An example of a for loop is given below: for (i=0; i<5; i++) printf(³%d´, i);
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Finding sum of first 10 natural numbers
int main() { int sum=0, i=0; /*declaration and initialization combined*/ for (i=1; i<=10; i++) /*loop starts here*/ { sum=sum+i; } printf(³sum of the first 10 natural numbers=%d\n´, sum); } Result: sum of first 10 natural numbers=55
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Exercise
What change will you make if we want to add 100 numbers and 1000 numbers ?

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Three Components of for
exp1 and exp3 are assignments or function calls. exp2 is a relational expression. The three expressions may not always be present. However, even if an expression is not present, the associated semicolon should be present. For instance, for (;exp2;) {s1}
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Finding all even numbers
int main () { int i=2; for (; i<50; i+=2) /*loop starts here*/ { printf(³%i is an even number\n´, i); } }
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Symbolic Constants
# define name constant Not variables and hence they are not defined as part of the declarations of variables. Specified on top of the program before the main() Wherever the symbolic constant names appear in the program, the compiler will replace them with the corresponding replacement constants.

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Symbolic Constants (Contd)
#define LOW 100 #define UPPER 150 #define STEP 1

int main()
{ int num; for (num=LOW; num<UPPER; num+=STEP) /*loop starts here*/ { if(num%3 == 0) printf(³%i is evenly divisible by 3\n´, num); } }
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Nested for Loop
Example for (i=1;i<=10; i++) { for (j=1; j<=5; j++) { for (k=1; k<=2; k++) { s1 } } }
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while loop 
Subset of for loop { exp1; while (exp2) { statements exp3; }}

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13

Generation of Multiplication Table
int main() { int a,b,product; a=1; b=0; product=0; printf(³Enter which table you want´); scanf(³%d´, &b)¶ while (a <=10) { product = a*b; printf(³%2d X %d= %3d\n´,a,b,product); a++; } }
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Reversing a number
#include <stdio.h> int main() { long unsigned n, reverse; printf(³enter the number to be reversed\n´); scanf(³%lu´, &n); reverse=0; while (n>0) { reverse=reverse*10+ (n%10); n=n/10; } printf(³Reversed number=%lu´, reverse); }
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Structure of while

TRUE

While condition

FALSE

STATEMENTS STATEMENTS

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do«. while
DO

STATEMENTS

TRUE
While condition

FALSE

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Example of do«.while
#include <stdio.h> #include<conio.h> main() { int alpha=0; do { printf (³\nenter upper case alphabet- enter 1 to quit\n´); if (alpha >=µA¶ && alpha<=µZ¶) { alpha=(alpha+32); putch(alpha); }
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Example of do«.while
else { if(alpha==µ1¶) printf(³End of Session´); else printf(³\ninvalid entry; retry´);

} }while(alpha!=µ1¶); }

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19

Linear Search
Algorithm Declaration array ia of size n, i = 0 item to be searched = x found = false do if (ia[i] == x) then found = true else i=i+1 while (i<= n ± 1 && not found)
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Switch
‡ Enables multi-way decision making ‡ More powerful than if .. else ‡ Syntax of switch statement is given below. switch (expression) { case constant or expression : statements case constant or expression : statements .. Default : statements } Constant expressions following case should be unique.
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Example of Switch
int main() { int a; char ch = µc¶; while (ch==µc¶) { printf(³\nEnter a digit 0 to 9\n´); scanf(³%d´,&a); switch(a) { case 0:printf(³Zero\n´); break;
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Example of Switch (contd.)
case 1:printf(³One\n´); break; case 2:printf(³Two\n´); break; case 3:printf(³Three\n´); break; case 4:printf(³Four\n´); break; case 5:printf(³Five\n´); break; case 6:printf(³Six\n´); break;
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Example of Switch (contd.)
case 7:printf(³Seven\n´); break; case 8:printf(³Eight\n´); break; case 9:printf(³Nine\n´); break; default:printf(³Illegal character\n´); } printf(³enter µc¶ if you want to continue\n´); printf(³or any other character to end\n´); ch=getche(); if(ch!=µc¶) printf(³End of Session´); } }
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Switch with char
char m; switch(m) { case µa¶ : s1; break; case µb¶ : s2; break ; }

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SWITCH with char (contd.)
int op; switch(op) { case µ+¶ : s1; break; case µ/¶ : s2; break ; }

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Break, Continue, Return
‡ Break causes the program to break from the loop that encloses it and proceed to the next stage of the program ‡ Continue causes resuming next iteration of the loop. ‡ Return may appear anywhere in the program int main() { int a; do { printf(³enter a number-enter 0 to end session\n´); scanf(³%d´, &a); if(a>20000) { printf(³you entered a high value-going out of range\n´); break; }
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Break, Continue, Return (contd)
else if(a>0) printf(³you entered %d\n´, a); if (a<0) { printf(³you entered a negative number\n´); continue; } } while(a!=0); printf(³End of session\n´);
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Result of program
Enter a number-enter 0 to end session 33 You entered 33 Enter a number-enter 0 to end session -60 You entered a negative number Enter a number-enter 0 to end session 45 You entered 45 Enter a number-enter 0 to end session 25000 You entered a high value-going out of range End of session * exit() function
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8. Arrays

30

Arrays
‡ User defined data type ‡ Contains data of the same type ‡ Array of integers, array of double etc. A = {2,4,6,8} A[0]=2 A[1]=4 A[2]=6 A[3]=8

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Array Declaration
Eg. double emp_age [100]; ‡ allots memory size of 100 doubles contiguously. ‡ If emp_age[0] is stored in location 1000 then emp_age[n] will be stored in 1000 + n * 8 (size of variable). [100] is called subscript. Initialization
Double emp_age[5] = {30.1, 31.1, 35.1, 36.1, 37.1]; Double emp_age[] = {30.1, «.. 37.1};

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32

Getting, storing and printing ten integers
{ int s1[10]; int i; printf(³Enter 10 integers \n´); for (i=0; i<=9; i++) { } printf(³you have entered:\n´); for (i=0; i<=9; i++) { printf(³%d\n´, sl[i]); }}
33

scanf(³%d´, &s1[i]);

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Finding greatest number and position in a Array
int main() { int a[5]={1,5,2,6,3}; int max=0, i, ind=0; for(i=0; i<=4; i++) { if (a[i] > max) { max =a[i]; ind=i+1; }

} printf(³maximum number=%d location=%d\n´, max,ind); }
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Strings
‡ String is an array of characters ‡ char name{25}; ‡ scanf(³%s´, name); ‡ The syntax for gets is: gets(name); puts(name); puts (³Enter the word´); ‡ printf canbe used to print more than one variable and scanf to get more than one variable at a time, in a single statement. However, puts can output only one variable and gets can input only one variable in one statement. In order to input or output more than one variable, separate statements have to be written for each variable. gets and puts are unformatted I/O functions ‡ Use <string.h> to use string related library functions Eg. strlen(str) returns length of str.
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Palindrome
#define FALSE 0 int main() { int flag=1; int right, left, n; char w[50]; /* maximum width of string 50*/ puts(³Enter string to be checked for palindrome´); gets(w); n=strlen(w)-1; for ((left=0, right=n); left<=n/2; ++left, -right) { if (w[left] !=w[right]) { flag=FALSE; break;} }
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Palindrome
if (flag) { puts(w); puts(³is a palindrome´); } else printf(³%s is NOT a palidrome´); }
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Multi-Dimensional Arrays
‡ Multi-dimensional Arrays are stored row by row continuously. int main() { int i,j; int z[2][2]; int x[2][2] = {1,2,3,4}; int y[2][2] = {5,6,7,8}; for (i=0; i<=1; i++) { for (j=0; j<=1; j++) { } }
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z[i][j]=x [i][j] * y[i][j]; printf(³z[%d][%d]=%d\n´, i, j, z[i][j]);}

Binary Search
Pre-condition : Data already sorted. Algorithm for Binary Search int a[n]; left = 0 right = n-1 found = false; while (left<right) {mid = (left+right)/2; if (a (mid) = =x) found = true; else if (a(mid) < x) left = mid + 1; else right = mid;} if (found) print (³found´); else print (³Not found´);
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9. Functions

40

Modular Programming Concept
MAIN

f1

f2

f3

f4

f11

f12

f21

f31

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Structured programming ± Code of good programming practices 
Write only one statement per line  Coin meaningful names for constants, variables and functions  Use capitals for names of constants  Divide programs into functions  Each function performs one task  Each function must have atleast one comment statement  Skip a line between functions  Skip a line after declaration statements in the main function as well as each function
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Structured programming ± Code of good programming practices 
Bring clarity by skipping lines wherever required  Put only one brace on each line  Align all opening braces and closing braces  Indent as much as possible to bring out logical structure of the program  Some of the program statements that could be indented are body of function, body of loop, body of if..else statements  Indent each case in switch statement  Indent an item within a structure declaration.
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Three Parts of Function
A function consists of three parts : a) Function Declaration b) Function Definition c) Function Call

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Function Declaration
return data ± type function name (formal argument 1, argument 2,«. ) ; Example float f1 (float arg 1, int arg 2); void fun2 (float arg1, int arg2); /*void means nothing*/ char fun3(float arg1, int arg2); char fun4(); Also called function prototype.
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Function Call
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Function can be called directly or indirectly. Eg. Fun1(25); sum = fin1(25); Function call made by passing actual arguments. Function call must be in conformity with function proto. Return type not to be specified.
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Function Definition
‡ ‡ Can be located anywhere. Consists of 2 parts ± ‡ Function declarator or header ‡ Conforms to proto, no semicolon ‡ Function body ‡ Consists of local variables & statements

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Algorithm for function add
main function Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 define function add get 2 integers call add & pass the 2 values get the sum Print the value Function Add get the values add them return the value to main function
48

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Program for adding
int main() { int a=0, b=0, sum=0; int add(int x, int y); /*function declaration*/ printf(³enter 2 integers\n´); scanf(³%d%d´, &a, &b); sum=add(a,b); /*functon call*/ printf(³sum of %d and %d=%d´, a,b,sum); /* function definition*/ Int add (int c, int d) /* function declarator*/ { int e; e=c+d; return e; }
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}

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Function - Important Points
‡ Function declarator is a replica of the function declaration ‡ The only difference is that the declaration in the calling function will end with a semicolon and the declarator in the called function will not end with a semicolon. ‡ The declarator must agree totally with the declaration in the called function i.e.the return data type, the function name, the argument type should all appear in the same order. ‡ When the function encounters the closing brace }, it returns control the calling program and returns to the same place at which the function was called.
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A Function called many times
{ float a,b,c,d, sum1, sum2, sum3; float add(float a, float b); /* function declaration*/ printf(³enter 2 float numbers\n´); scanf(³%f%f´, &a, &b); sum1 = add(a,b); /*function call*/ printf(³enter 2 more float numbers\n´); scanf(³%f%f´, &c, &d); sum2 = add(c,d); /* function call*/ sum3=add(sum1,sum2); printf(³sum of %f and %f=%f\n´, a,b,sum1); printf(³sum of %f and %f=%f\n´, c,d,sum2); printf(³sum of %f and %f=%f\n´, sum1,sum2,sum3); } /*function definition*/ float add (float c, float d) /* function declarator*/ { float e; e=c+d; return e; }
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Calling multiple functions
Step 1 : get the number Step 2 : if number is odd call the Reverse function Step 3 : else multiply the number by 2 Step 4 : if number is evenly divisible by 3 call ADD-digits Reverse Function Step 1 : reverse = 0 Step 2 : while (number > 0) reverse = reverse * 10 + (number % 10) number = number/10 Step 3 : return (reverse)

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Calling multiple functions (Contd.)
ADD-digits function Step 1 : sum = 0 Step 2 : while number > 0 sum = sum + (number % 10) number = number / 10 Step 3 : return (sum) Look at Example 44 in page 146.
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Scope rules for functions
Scope of the variable is local to the function, unless it is global Look at Example 45 in page 149. To find the greatest number in an array, look at Example 46 in page 151. To reverse a string, look at Example 47 in page 152.

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Return values
return (sum); return v1; return ³true´; return `Z¶; return 0; return 4.0 + 3.0; etc. return;
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