# SUBJECT :-FEM

TOPIC:- Galerkin s

and Raleigh-Ritz Method

By:-Nikhil gedam (roll no 10) :-Abhijit(roll no.05)

g.the Galerkin method Both approaches lead to integral equations instead of differential equations (the strong form)  . e.g. the Rayleigh-Ritz method ± Weak or weighted residual formulations.The Finite Element Method      Evolved first from the matrix methods of structural analysis in the early 1960¶s Uses the algorithms of linear algebra Later found to have a more fundamental foundation The essential features are in the formulation There are two alternative formulations that are broadly equivalent in most circumstances ± Variational formulations. e.

e. y .g. minimum potential energy u ! min ´´´ (Lv  f )  v d V v R Weighted Residual (weak) form.Integral Formulations Consider the strong form of a linear partial differential equation. virtual work ´´´ (Lu  f )  w d V ! 0 R . e.g. e. z ) u! On region R on boundary S Strong Form Lu = f Variational Principle.g. 3-D Poisson¶s equation with zero boundary conditions:  x 2u xx 2  x 2u xy 2  x 2u xz 2 ! f ( x.

y ) u !0 On region S on boundary C Weak form ¨ x u x u¸ ¹  w d xd y ! f  w d xd y  ´´ ©  ´´ ¹ © xx xy º Sª S Integrate by parts ¨ xu xw xu xw ¸ xu xu ´´ © xx xx  xy xy ¹ d xdy  C xy w d x  C xx w d y ! ´´ f  w d xdy ´ ´ ª º S S Where.Weak Form for 2-D Poisson s Equation  x 2u xx 2  x 2u xy 2 ! f ( x. u and w vanish at the boundary 0 0 .

Galerkin s Method for 2-D Poisson s Equation   Choose a finite set of approximating (trial) functions..y). U3. «. .y) = U1]1 + U ] + U3]3 + « + UN]N (that can also satisfy the essential boundary conditions) Solve N discrete equations for U1.. x] ¸ x] i ¹ x x º xx !   s ¨ © ª x] xy . i = 1. x] ¸ x ] i » ¹ ¼d xd y xy º xy ½ ´´ f] i dxd y j ! Fi K § .. N Allow approximations to u in the form U(x. U . UN  «¨ ´´ ¬© ­ª x] xx . «. ]i(x..

ij j .

Galerkin s Method for 2-D Poisson s Equation [K]U = F [K] is the stiffness matrix and F is the load (RHS) vector ¨ x] i x ] j K ij ! ´´ © © xx xx ª Fi ! x] i x] j ¸ ¹d xd y ! K ji xy xy ¹ º ´´ f] i d xdy [K] is symmetric and positive definite .

weighted residuals reduces to the collocation method  If w is chosen as the residual functions Lu-f. symmetry & the variational principle are lost.  The integration by parts (Green-Gauss theorem) automatically introduces the Neumann (natural) boundary conditions  The Dirichlet (essential) boundary conditions must be satisifed explicitly when solving [K]U=F  Since discretized integrals are sums. If we add xu/xx.Comments on Galerkin s Method  Galerkin is more general than Rayleigh-Ritz. Galerkin¶s method requires the error (residual) in the solution to be orthogonal to the approximating space.  The Ritz-Galerkin FEM finds the approximate solution that minimizes the error in the energy . but Galerkin still works  If w is chosen as Dirac delta functions at N points. weighted residuals reduces to the least squares method  By choosing w to be the approximating functions. contributions from many elements are assembled into the global stiffness matrix by addition.

V-5-1 Approximate Methods (I) Method of Weighted Residuals (MWR) L[u ] in 0 D ! +homo.n where wj are the weighting functions. j = 1. solution u ! un ! § CiJi i !1 n where each trial function Ji satisfies the b. i. .«. < wj.. b. Rn > = 0.c¶s The residual Rn ! L[un ] In this method (MWR). 8 .e. Ci are chosen such that Rn is forced to be zero in an average sense.c¶s in B Assume approx.

y ! sa ] 1 ! c1 ( x 2  a 2 )( y 2  a 2 ) Ri !  2] 1  2 ! 2c1[( x  a )2  ( y  a )2 ]  2 J1 ! ( x 2  a 2 )( y 2  a 2 ) 9 . Ex: Torsion of a square shaft  2] ! 2 ] !0 (i) one ± term approximation on x ! sa .r. Galerkin method force the residual to be zero w. an orthogonal complete set.(II) Galerkin Method wj are chosen to be the trial functions J j hence the trial functions is chosen as members of a complete set of functions.t.

1406G (2a)4 the error is only -1. % 10 .From ´ ´ a a a a R1J1dxdy ! 0 5 1   c1 ! 8 a2 therefore 5 ] 1 ! 2 ( x 2  a 2 )( y 2  a 2 ) 8a the torsional rigidity D1 ! 2G ´ ] dxdy ! 0.1388G (2a )4 R the exact value of D is Da ! 0.

14% therefore D2 ! 2G ´ ] 2 dxdy ! 0.(ii) two ± term approximation ] 2 ! ( x 2  a 2 )( y 2  a 2 )[c1  c2 ( x 2  y 2 )] By symmetry even functions   R2 ! ] 2  2 J1 ! ( x 2  a 2 )( y 2  a 2 ) J2 ! ( x 2  a 2 )( y 2  a 2 )( x 2  y 2 ) From and we obtain ´ ´ R R2J1dxdy ! 0 R2J2 dxdy ! 0 R c1 ! 1295 1 525 1 . c2 ! 2216 a 2 4432 a 2 the error is only -0.1404G (2 a) 4 R 11 .

(II) Raleigh-Ritz Method This is used when the exact solution is impossible or difficult to obtain.c¶s. First. Then. y (0) ! y (1) ! 0 2 «1 d 1 » . I ! I (c1 .K . we can calculate extreme I . Ui are some approximate function which satisfy the b. xI xI !K ! !0 xc1 xcn Ex: Sol : From d yd xy !  x  . cn ) choose c1 ~ cn i. we assume the approximate solution as : u ! § i !1 n i Ui Where.e.

y  xy 2  xy ¼dx ´0 ¬ 2 2 ­ ½ 1 ´ 1 0 .

y  xy  x H ydx ! 0   I ! 12 .

Assuming that y ! x .

1  x .

c1  c 2 x  c3 x 2 K (1)One-term approx y ! c1 x .

1  x ! c1 .

x  x 2 yd c1 .

1  2 x ! x 2 2 «1 2 » 2 1 I .

c1 ! ´ ¬ c1 .

 4 x  4 x  c1 .

x  2 x 3  x 4  c1 x .

0 2 2 ­ ½ c12 ¨ 4 ¸ c12 ¨ 1 2 1 ¸ ¨ 1 1 ¸ ! 19 c 2  c1 ! 1 © 1  2  ¹  ©   ¹  c1 ©  ¹ 120 12 2 ª 3º 2 ª4 5 6º 3 4º ª 1 ( )Two-term approx xI !0 xc1   19 1 c1  ! 0 60 12   c1 ! 0.263 x(1  x) y ! x(1  x)(c1  c2 x) ! c1 ( x  x 2 )  c2 ( x 2  x3 ) 13 .263   y (1) ! 0.x  x 2 ¼dx Then.

Then yd c1 (1  2 x)  c2 (2 x  3x 2 ) ! 1 1 2 I (c1 . c2 ) ! ´ [ c1 .

 4 x  4 x 2  2c1c2 .

2 x  7 x 2  6 x 3 1 0 2 1 2 3 2 2 3 4 c3 (4 x 12 x  9 x )a c1 x  2 x4  x5  2c1c2 x4  2 x5  x6 2 _ _ .

.

 c2 ( x  2 x  x )a c1 .

x  x  c2 .

x  x 2 5 6 7 _ 2 3 3 4 ] adx c12 ¨ 4 1 2 1¸ ¨ 7 3 1 1 1¸ ! ©1  2     ¹  c1c2 ©1      ¹ 2 ª 3 4 5 6º ª 3 2 5 3 7º c12 ¨ 4 9 1 2 9 ¸ c1 c2  © 3    ¹   2 ª3 5 6 7 8 º 12 20 19 2 11 107 2 c1 c2 ! c1  c1c2  c2   120 70 1680 12 20 14 .

177 x  0.009 over (0.1) ) 15 .xI !0 xc1 xI !0 xc2     19 11 1 c1  c2 ! 60 70 12 11 109 1 c1  c2 ! 70 840 20 c  1 = 0. c2 = 0.173x 2 )(1  x) ( It is noted that the deviation between the successive approxs.173 0.127 c2 = 0.317 c1 + 0. y(1) and y( ) is found to be smaller in magnitude than 0.177 .05   y (2) ! (0.