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Transmission

Media…

 Asad Ullah Reg No: 07MDTLC0295


 Faiz Ullah Reg No: 07MDTLC0293
Contents
 Transmission Media & Types.
 Unguided Transmission Media
( Radio Waves, Microwaves, Infra red Waves ) & Applications.

 Guided Media
1) Optical Fiber, Applications, Advantages & Disadvantages.
2) Co-axial Cable
3) Twisted Pair Cable
4) Waveguides
 Comparison of Different guided Medias.
 References
Transmission
Media
 The Medium or path in which the communication between transmitter and receiver takes
place is known as Transmission Media.
 Transmission Media can be classified in two types…
 Unguided and guided medias.

Transmission Media

Unguided Transmission Media Guided Transmission Media


(Wireless Media) (Wired Media)

Air and Space


Waveguides
(Microwaves
Satellite links Optical Fiber Cable Co-axial Cable Twisted Pair Cable
Infra red waves)
Electromagnetic Wave Spectrum
Optical Fiber Communication

1.7 µm 0.8 µm

Red Violet
~0.7 µm ~0.4 µm

Radiofrequencies Short Gamma Rays


wave UHF Millimeter infrared
Cosmic rays
Wave X-Rays
Standard
Long wave broadcast VHF Far infrared Ultraviolet
Microwave

0 102 104 106 108 1010 1012 1014 1016 1018 1020 1022 Frequency (Hz)
3000 km 30 km 300 m 3m 3 cm 0.3 mm 3 µm 30 nm 0.3 nm 3 pm 0.3 pm
Wavelength

f = 1/T λ = c/f c = 3x108 m/s


Unguided Transmission Media
 Also known as Wireless Media.
 Use Electromagnetic Waves of different frequencies and do not need a wire or cable
conductor to transmit signals.
 No physical connection between transmitter and receiver.
 Radio Waves
 Microwaves
 Infra red Waves
Applications of Unguided Media
 Radio Waves:
Radio waves are used for Multicast communications ,such as radio and television, and paging systems.
 Microwaves:

Microwaves are used for unicast communication such as cellular telephones, satellite networks, and wireless LANs.
 Infra red Waves:

Infrared signals can be used for short-range communication in a closed area using line-of-sight propagation.
Advantages of Unguided Media
Very useful in difficult terrain where cable laying is not possible.
Provides mobility to communication nodes.
Right of way and cable laying costs can be reduced.

Disadvantages of Unguided Media

Susceptible to rain, atmospheric variations and Objects in transmission path.


Frequency Limitation
Losses
Interference
Fading
Guided Transmission Media
 Also known as conducted media.
 Use a conductor such as a wire or a fiber optic cable to move the signal from sender to
receiver.
 Guided Media have different types major are…
 Optical Fiber Cable
 Twisted Pair Cable
 Co-axial Cable
 Waveguides
Optical Fiber…
 Optical Fiber is a thin strand of highly transparent glass or sometimes plastic that guide light. It is
used as a medium for carrying information from one point to another in the form of light.
 Dielectric Wave guide
A basic Optical Fiber system consists of…
 Transmitting device
 Optical fibre cable
 Optical Regenerator
 Receiver
 The fibre itself is passive and does not contain any active properties

Light Source Light Detector


(Transmitter) Receiver

Optical Fiber Electrical


Electrical
Cable Signal output
Signal Input
Optical Fiber Construction…

Light
Cladding Jacket
Core

 Core: The centre of the fibre through which the light is transmitted.
 Cladding: The outside optical layer of the fibre that traps the light in the core and
guides it along and even through curves.
 Jacket: Used for protecting the inner materials from damaging.
Principle of Operation
 Total internal reflection
 Refractive index of core is greater than that of cladding.
 Angle of incidence should be greater than Critical angle ϴc
 Numerical Aperture

θ c
Types of Optical Fiber Cables…
Types
Of
Optical Fiber

Mode wise types Index wise types

which the light follows sine path…


point act as low refractive index media by
From the central axis to the outer side each
Single Mode Multi Mode
Step Index Graded Index
(Single Path) (Multi Path)

Core (dia) = 50 microns


Core (dia) = 8.3 microns
Cladding (dia) = 125 microns
Cladding (dia) = 125 microns

Have only one


core and cladding
Core (dia) = 62.5 microns of fix refractive
Light waves follows only Cladding (dia) = 125 microns
one path… index values…

Light follow a lot of reflecting paths to go from txr to rxr…


Fibre Optic Splicing…
Stripping Once the coated fibre is exposed, Use fibre
of stripper to strip fibre to appropriate length.
Two methods of fibre optic splicing… fibres Take care not to damage the fibres in the
process.

Mechanical Splicing: Cleaning After the coating is removed, clean the fibre
with specially designed isopropyl alcohol
 To hold the two fibres ends in a precisely
wipes so that the fibre squeaks.
aligned position
 (Typical loss: 0.3 dB) Cleaving A good cleave is the key to obtaining a good
splice. Use cleaver to cut the fibre. After
Fusion Splicing: cleaving do not touch or clean the fibre.
 The joining and fusing of two fibres by placing
them between two electrodes, and Splicing The fibre is now ready to be spliced
mechanically or Fusion. Insert the fibre
discharging an electric arc over the fibres.
carefully in the mechanical splice or in the
 Lower loss and less back reflection than fusion splicer for splicing. While inserting in
the mechanical splice make sure that fibre
mechanical splicing. (Typical loss: 0.1 dB) is inserted directly in the groove and do not
touch any other surface. Fusion splicer will
automatically align and fuse the fibre.

Protection In case of fusion splicing cover the splice with


heat shrink sleeve and place it in the heater,
for mechanical splice carefully close the
mechanical splice.

Organizing Organize the fibre in the enclosure properly


Make sure that organising do not cause
Micro-bending.
Applications of Optical Fiber
 Public and Private Telecommunication Lines.
 Computer networks (LAN, WAN ).
 Television distribution network.
 Military network.
 Control, remote control and Signalizing network.
 Video supervision lines.
 CCTV- closed-circuit TV.
 Optical Fiber Sensors.
 Local/ Junction Network.
 Fiber Access Network.
 Submarine Network.
 Free Space Optics (FSO).
 Medical Services.
 Angiography.
Advantages Of Optical Fiber
 Non Conductivity / No Short circuit
 Wide Temperature Range
 Material Availability
 Security
 Large / Wide Bandwidth:
Suitable for high speed.wide-band,large-capacity telecommunication lines
 Low Loss:
Because of low loss, few or no amplifiers are necessary.
 Very Light Weight:
The smallest cables can be designed and manufactured, therefore reduce pulling strength and reduce Laying
cost.
 Economic:
The most economical solution for the simultaneous transmission of servile multi channel users.
 No cross Talk
Being non-inductive there is no induction of signal into/from other circuits so that possibility of cross talk is
virtually eliminated.
 Many channel Capacity
Many wavelengths can be used.
 Small size
 Freedom from interference
 No corrosion
Disadvantages Of Optical Fiber

 Cost
Although availability of raw material is guaranteed, the manufacture of Optical Fiber
extremely difficult and involves complete set up for heat and chemical treatment of sio2 to reach the
desired purity required to producing Optical Fibre.
 Remote Power Feeding
Power of operation of regenerators cannot be transmitted on Optical Fibre (Dielectric nature).
Additional arrangements are to be made for this purpose e.g. use of stand by batteries, solar power
panels etc.
 Mechanical Problems.
 Non-Linear characteristics of Optical converters
The electrical and optical characteristics of optical converters are non-linear, which results in
extra noise, loss of power, coupling efficiency of optical sources, conversion efficiency of optical
devices etc.
 Hazards with lasers
 Limited bend radius
 Difficult to splice / Alignment Problems
 Hard Installation
Co-axial Cable
 Mainly designed for minimizing radiation losses.
 Composed of an inner conductor carrying the signal with grounded outer braided
conductor.
 Both conductors share a common center axial, hence the term “co-axial”
• Inner Conductor: An aluminum or copper conductor.
• Insulator: A dielectric material (Polystyrene, Pyrex)
• Plastic Cover: A polyethylene outer jacket.
Co-axial cable performance Categories of
Co-axial cable
over different frequencies…
35
Category Impedance Use
0.7/2.9 mm
30
RG-59 75 Ω Cable TV
Attenuation (dB/km)

25 1.2/4.4 mm

20
RG-58 50 Ω Thin Ethernet

15
RG-11 50 Ω Thick Ethernet
10
2.6/9.5 mm
5

0.1 1.0 10 100


f (MHz)
Twisted Pair Cable
 Two insulated copper
wires arranged in a 30 26 gauge
regular spiral pattern to 24 gauge
minimize interference
24

Attenuation (dB/mi)
 Various thicknesses, e.g.
22 gauge
0.016 inch (24 gauge)
 Twisted pairs can provide 18
high bit rates at short 19 gauge
distances.
12

f (kHz)
1
10 100 1000
Types of Twisted Pair Cable
 Unshielded Twisted Pair Cable
 Shielded Twisted Pair Cable
Categories of Twisted Pair Cable

Category Description Data Rate (Mbps)

CAT-1 Unshielded Twisted Pair used for Telephone. <0.1

CAT-2 Unshielded Twisted Pair used for T1 data. 2

CAT-3 Improved CAT-2 used for computer networks. 10

CAT-4 Improved CAT-3 used for Token Ring networks. 20

CAT-5 Unshielded Twisted Pair used for networks. 100-125


CAT-5E Extended CAT-5 for more noise immunity.

CAT-6 Unshielded twisted pair used in computer networks for high data 200
rates.

CAT-7 Shielded Twisted Pair with foil shield around the entire cable 600
plus a shield around each twisted pair.
Waveguides
 Skin effect in other Metallic Medias.
 At high frequencies we use waveguides as a transmission media.
 Hollow metal structure
 Strip lines
 Mostly used as antenna feeder
 Rectangular, Circular and Conical waveguides
 No Radiation loss
 Less attenuation
 High Power Capacity.
Applications of Waveguides
 Microwave Oven
 Coupling Feeder
 Radar
 PCB
 Medical Ultrasonography
 Medical Stethoscope
etc etc…
Comparison of guided medias
discussed…

Cables
References

 www.wikipedia.com
 www.britannica.com
 Data communications & Computer Networks by Behrouz Farozan.
 www.pptsearch.com
 www.ptcl.com.pk
 Alyaan Communications, Mardan.
 www.TheFOA.org
 Modern Electronic Communication by Miller & Beasley.
Any Question…?