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this is called development. w     .ëGenerally tunnels are provided ëAlignment on either side of tunnel is steeper (not more than ruling grade) d shorter tunnel ëTo achieve the objective of as straight & Level track as possible. length of track is increased & grades are kept upto ruling grades.

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o gain elevation up or down hill. alignment makes a half circle loop into valley followed by half circle loop round the hill side ëExcessive cutting & filling is avoided w     .

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ëMhen zig zag development is not feasible for very steep slopes ë.

o stop train gradually. vertical curve is provided ë. without using brakes.

rain stops at switch point (station yards) w     .

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passing over itself until it gains height ë.rack rises on a steady curve until it has completed a 360 degree loop.

rain does not need to stop & reverse
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ë{uitable for narrow valleys ë{wings around slope of valley w     .

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ë0urves around slopes of a hill w     .

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ëEstimate of traffic in terms of passengers & wagons ëPossibility of development of natural resources ëPlaces of tourism ë.

raffic history ë2 ± 3 tentative routes are marked w     .

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opography ë.

existing facilities.owns. crossings ëGeological characteristics ëMaximum flood levels ëAvailability of material ëProbable radii of curves ë.

cost of construction of each probable line w     .otal track length ëApproximate earth work ëApprox.

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ë2 ± 3 routes are selected for preliminary survey ëRecommends only one route ëData collected: ëElevations (levels) ëRiver crossings ëExisting track ëLand ownership ë0limatic conditions w     .

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opographic map is completed ëLongitudinal section of alignment ë.

ypical cross sections ëLength of track ëGradients ë0ost of subgrade w     .

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contours. crossings. curves.ëPreliminary survey d Paper location (grades. bridges ëPosition of buildings w     . etc) ëŒinally decided alignment is surveyed in detail ëŒrom paper to ground d pegs are fixed at regular intervals ëDemarcation of land width ë0entreline of culverts.

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curves. degree.ë Geometry £ {cience of properties & relations of lines. radius  Vertical Plane: Vertical curve. surfaces & solids Design £ Œinal layout or plan Geometric Design  Deals with the geometry of track alignment in vertical & horizontal planes.  Horizontal plane: straight portion. gradient  0ombination: {uperelevation w     .

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cant excess & length of transition curve w     .  Difference in height between the inner & outer rails on the curve ëp  the speed at which the effect of centrifugal force is exactly balanced by the superelevation provided. ëm Highest speed which may be allowed on a curved track taking into consideration the radius of curvature. actual cant. cant deficiency.

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ë.  when a train travels on a curved track at a speed higher than the equilibrium speed then cant deficiency occurs.

 pwhen a train travels on a curved track at a speed lower than the eq. speed. cant excess occurs w     .

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1‰ in 60     w     .     the amount by which a cant (or deficiency of cant) is reduced or increased in a given length of transition Examples: 1. A gradient of 1 in 500 means that cant (or cant deficiency) of 1 mm is attained (or lost) in every 500 mm length of transition 2.

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Examples: 1. 2 ¼‰ per second w     .he rate at which the cant (or cant deficiency) is increased with time while passing over the transition curve. 40 mm per second means that a vehicle when travelling at maximum permitted speed will experience a change in cant (or cant deficiency) of 40 mm in each second of travel over the transition. 2.

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. - ' * (    .ë R = Radius of curve (m) ) ë 0 = Length of 0hord (m) ë ë V = Versine on chord length 0 (m) By geometry.

    G        +   G          G   w   xG w     .

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Transition Curve  w     .

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{traight section throughout is not always possible 2. 0urves may be introduced to by pass obstacles or avoid cutting 3. what will happen? w     .ransition? 0hange from one state or condition to another ëRequirement 1. {uppose a curve is provided with a tangent.

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ërncrease the radius of curvature gradually from that of the original circular curve until the radius is infinitely large at the point where curve merges into the straight ërncrease in curvature must be  0ontinuous  Uniform  Rapid ë{uperelevation: from no cant to full cant gradually within length of transition curve w     .

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hree Mays:  .

 Œull cant may be continued through the whole length of the circular curve & the runoff in the cant located entirely on the tangent at each end  .

 Œull cant may be applied through the central portion of the circular curve & diminish to zero at the two tangent points  .

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w     .he cant may be located partly on tangent & partly on the curve having its mean value at the tangent points.

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ë. at all other points it is either too great or too small.ë·o matter which of these three are adopted. the cant is correct at only one point in the run- off.

his excess or deficiency of cant produces & accounts for the objectionable lurches. resistances & shocks which are noticeable to passengers when a train travelling at speed enters or leaves a curve w     .

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Case A: 564 " 2     .

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5!  Axle springs of low rail are  .

1  6 depressed & high rail w  extended    .

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Case A: .

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 " 1 LURCH!! Axle springs of low rail extended & high rail  w  depressed    .

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(      .ëBefore the tangent point the load on inner rail is higher than on outer one & then are equalized once the point of full superelevation is arrived.

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ërncrease the radius of curvature gradually from that of the original circular curve until the radius is infinitely large at the point where curve merges into the straight ërncrease in curvature must be  0ontinuous  Uniform  Rapid {uperelevation: from no cant to full cant gradually within length of transition curve w     .

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ëAmount of cant at any point correspond to radius at that point ë.

hree conditions govern design: Length Rate of increase in radius Rate of increase in superelevation w     .

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ë0ubic spiral ëLemniscate ë0lothoid ë0ubic Parabola d Used for railways w     .

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r = infinity (no curvature) ë Mhen x = L. r = R (Radius of 0ircular 0urve) ë As y = cx3 d â !"G ë Mhere Y is the offset from tangent to any point on transition curve % w     . ë Mhen x = 0.ë rf r denotes the radius of curvature at any point whose ordinates are x. y then.

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)  by attaining this cant at a certain rate (   ) 2. Relating length to the cant for the given radius G & maximum (or avg. Relating length to the      &  of train upon it w     . two of them are: 1.ë{everal ways to determine the length of transition curve.

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permissible rate of gain & loss of cant (& of cant deficiency) i r7+  .rack committee of the Railway Executive of British railways recommended that 1 in 300 should be adopted as the steepest permissible cant gradient ë6‰ as maximum permissible cant ë2 ¼‰ per second as the max.

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BRITISH RECOMMENDATIONS INDIAN RECOMMENDATIONS /     ".

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it has angular acceleration on curve ëOn transition curve. with change in radius the angular acceleration changes.ëDue to centrifugal force on train. ëMhat should be the rate of change of angular acceleration which is unnoticeable to passengers? w     .

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of the train the angular acceleration is v2/r ë ./sec.ë rf l = length in feet of any element of the transition curve whose radius = r in feet and v is the linear velocity in ft.

the rate of change in angular acceleration is ë Mhen r = R. the above expression will be equal to 1 and this is a maximum.ime taken to move over l is l/v. w     .

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angent & 0ircular 0urve ë.

{ = {hift ³U or the amount by which the curve is displaced inwards in order to introduce transition curve ABP ëP = Point of change from transition to circular curve ëB = Mid point of .

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Q + P C V S Y B A T D C/2 C/2 ë Y = x   { d end ordinate is four times the shift ë Versine {#.

$!xG ë Because #{  {%  {hift =  = 02/24R or L2/24R where L = Length of transition curve w     .

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.ëŒind out the length of transition curve for a four degree Broad Gauge circular curved track having a cant of 15 cm.

he maximum permissible speed on the curve is 90 kmph. ëŒind out the shift & offset at every 15 m interval of length of curve ëDraw the transition curve Assume maximum permissible cant deficiency as 75 mm w     .

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11 metres w     .ë{hift = 2 L /24R = 2 108 /24 x 4/1750 = 1.

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Interval Offsets (m) (cm) ë ëë     ë  ë  ë  ë   ë ë   w     .

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+- & @%  &  %@% & +A@   & @%  &  @% &  & @  & % %@% %&  & &@&& &@&& %&&@&& %&@&& &&@&& &@&& &&@&& &@&& &&@&& &@&& w     .%& *+r/r0' &@ %&& .'+  .r+.

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&GmGUPTA¶S  ëEffect of change of Gradients ë{ummit curves ëValley curves ëLength of Vertical 0urve w     .

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