Ak5nIA GUÞ1A

224/CC/07
Hyper-SpectraI Imaging
collects and processes information from across the
electromagnetic spectrum i.e Provides very high spectral
resolution image data and the potential for discrimination of
subtle differences in ground covers; special sensors and processing
Systems provide for hyper spectral imaging.
But the vast amount of data bring a lot of difficulty to the subsequent
interpretation and analysis :
High dimensional data spaces are mostIy empty i.e the data structure involved
exists primariIy in a subspace.
Therefore a need to reduce dimensions of data to the right number without
losing the oringinal information.
There are 2 strategies to reduce these dimensions :
1. Feature EXTRACTÌON
2. Feature SELECTÌON
eature SeIection
1hls ls achleved bv remov|ng |rre|evantţ redundantţ
and no|sy features %lŦeŦţ selecLlna the subset of features
LhaL can achleve Lhe besL performance ln Lerms of
accuracv and compuLaLlonal Llme)Ŧ
Ŵ allows the reduct|on of feature space
Ŵ cruc|a| for reduc|ng the tra|n|ng t|me
Ŵ |mprov|ng the pred|ct|on accuracyŦ
Ŵ helps people Lo acqu|re better understand|ng abouL Lhelr daLa
bv Lelllna Lhem whlch are Lhe lmporLanL feaLures and
how Lhev are relaLed wlLh each oLherŦ
AVAILA8LL 5LAkCn ÞkCCLDUkL5
5tepw|se search ť
adds/removes slnale feaLure from Lhe subseL Ť Lhe feaLure once
removed canL be laLer reconslderedŤ Lhe soluLlon ls subŴopLlmalŤ also called
SequenLlal lorward SelecLlon or SequenLlal 8ackward SelecLlonŦ
Ŵ8ranch and 8ound a|gor|thm ť
requlres monoLonlc evaluaLlon funcLlonsŤ mav flnd a pracLlcable soluLlon for a
moderaLe feaLure seL buL lmpracLlcable for problems lnvolvlna a larae number of
feaLuresţ especlallv because lL mav need Lo search
Lhe enLlre feaslble realon Lo flnd Lhe opLlmal soluLlonŦ
ŴGener|c A|gor|thm (GA) ť
a comblnaLorlal search Lechnlque based on boLh random and probablllsLlc
measuresŤ emplovs a populaLlon of compeLlna soluLlonsţ evolved over Llmeţ Lo
converae Lo an opLlmal soluLlonŤ LffecLlvelvţ Lhe soluLlon space ls searched ln
parallelţ whlch helps ln avoldlna local opLlmaŦ
Je propose ln Lhls paper a subseL search procedure LhaL uLlllzes
Lhe ACC alaorlLhm and alms aL achlevlna slmllar or beLLer resulLs
Lhan CAŴbased feaLure selecLlonŦ
nt CoIony Optimisation ( CO )
W nvenLed bv ,arco Dor|go ln 1991 ln collaboraLlon wlLh Colornl and
Manlezzo
W raws |nsp|rat|on from the behav|our of rea| ants Lo provlde a
meLhod of opLlmlsaLlonŦ
W -ormallv works wlLh comb|nator|a| opt|m|sat|on prob|ems eŦaŦ 1SÞţ
schedullnaţ faclllLv placemenLţ LelecommunlcaLlons neLworksţ daLa
mlnlnaţ vehlcle rouLlnaţ eLcŦ
W hen walking the ants leave a pheromone trail
PHEROMONE ÷ an odorous substance ; used as an indirect
communication medium.
W hen choosing a route they are more likely to follow a route
which has more pheromone deposited
W Accordingly, the path that has been used by more ants will be more
attractive to follow. Ìn other words, the probability with which an ant
chooses a path increases with the number of ants that previously
chose the same path.
W Pheromones evaporate allowing changes if a locally minimal
route is found. Pheromone evaporation helps in avoiding rapid
convergence of the algorithm towards a sub-optimal region.
%&# BEH'IO# O %S
aturaI nts
-atura| antsť now do they do |t?
P Since the route B is shorter,
the ants on this path will
complete the travel more
times and thereby lay more
pheromone over it.
P The pheromone concentration on
trail B will increase at a higher
rate than on A, and soon the ants
on route A will choose to follow
route B
P Since most ants will no longer
travel on route A, and since the
pheromone is volatile, trail A will
start evaporating
P Only the shortest route will
remain!
LA1UkL 5LLLC1IC- 8A5LD C- A-1 CCLC-
ALGCkI1n, Ck
nÞLk5ÞLC1kAL kL,C1L 5L-5I-G I,AGL5
Lverv spectra| band of hyper spectra| |mag|ng data whlch
ls ln Lhe hlahŴdlmenslon space mav be looked as a feaLureŦ
So Lhe feaLure selecLlon ls band se|ect|on ln Lhe hvper specLral
lmaalna such LhaL Lhe selecLed subseL has clearlv reduced
numbers of dlmenslon of daLa as well as reserves Lhe lnLeresLlna
lnformaLlon as much as posslbleŦ
1he process d|scards the redundancy features from a seL of feaLures
ln order Lo reduce Lhe number of dlmenslonţ lŦeŦ a seL of feaLures x
whlch has m % m Ƽ n ) feaLures ls selecLed from a seL of feaLures
whlch has n feaLuresţ wlLh Lhe crlLerlon funcLlon !%x) up Lo
maxlmumŦ
1nL ÞkCÞC5LD 5LAkCn ÞkCCLDUkL
lor a alven classlflcaLlon Laskţ Lhe problem of feaLure
selecLlon can be sLaLed as followsť g|ven the or|g|na| setţ ţ of
n featuresţ f|nd subset 5ţ wh|ch cons|sts of m features (m Ƽ nţ
5 |s a subset ofz )ţ such that the c|ass|f|cat|on accuracy |s max|m|zedŦ
1he feaLure selecLlon problem represenLaLlon explolLed bv
Lhe arLlflclal anLs lncludes Lhe followlnať
W n feaLures LhaL consLlLuLe Lhe orlalnal seLţ l ƹ žf 1 ţ ŧţ f n ſ
W A number of arLlflclal anLs Lo search Lhrouah Lhe feaLure
space %na anLs)
W 1l ţ Lhe lnLenslLv of pheromone Lrall assoclaLed wlLh feaLure fl
W lor each anL [ţ a llsL LhaL conLalns Lhe selecLed feaLure
subseLţ S[ ƹ žs 1 ţ ŧţ s m ſŦ
Je propose Lo use a hvbrld evaluaLlon measure LhaL ls able
Lo esLlmaLe Lhe overa|| performance of subsets (a c|ass|f|cat|on a|gor|thm
ca||ed the wrapper eva|uat|on funct|on ) as well as Lhe
|oca| |mportance of features ( f||ter eva|uat|on funct|on)Ŧ
W n Lhe flrsL lLeraLlonţ each anL wlll randomlv choose a
feaLure subseL of m feaLuresŦ Cnlv Lhe besL k subseLsţ k Ƽ naţ
wlll be used Lo updaLe Lhe pheromone Lrlal and lnfluence Lhe
feaLure subseLs of Lhe nexL lLeraLlonŦ
W n Lhe second and followlna lLeraLlonsţ each anL wlll sLarL wlLh m Ŷ p feaLures LhaL
are randomlv chosen from Lhe prevlouslv selecLed kŴbesL
subseLsţ where p ls an lnLeaer LhaL ranaes beLween 1 and m Ŷ 1Ŧ
n Lhls wavţ the features that const|tute the best k subsets w|||
have more chance to be present |n the subsets of the next
|terat|onŦ
Poweverţ lL wlll sLlll be posslble for each anL Lo
conslder oLher feaLures as wellŦ
lor a alven anL [ţ Lhose feaLures are Lhe ones LhaL achleve Lhe besL
Compromlse beLween prevlous knowledaeţ lŦeŦţ pheromone Lrallsţ and Local
mporLance wlLh respecL Lo subseL S[ ţ whlch conslsLs of Lhe
feaLures LhaL have alreadv been selecLed bv LhaL speclflc anLŦ
LkÞLkI,L-1 kL5UL15
L ls worLh menLlonlna LhaL Lhere ls llLLle dlfference beLween
Lhe computat|ona| cost of Lhe proposed alaorlLhm and Lhe CAŴ
based search procedureŦ 1hls ls due Lo Lhe facL LhaL boLh of
Lhem evaluaLe Lhe selecLed subseLs uslna a "wrapper
approach"ţ whlch requlres far more compuLaLlonal cosL Lhan
evaluaLlna Lhe local lmporLance of feaLures uslna Lhe "f||ter
approach" adopLed ln Lhe proposed alaorlLhmŦ
Je conducLed an experlmenL Lo classlfv speech seamenLs
accordlna Lo Lhelr manner of arLlculaLlonŦ Slx classes were
conslderedť vowelţ nasalţ frlcaLlveţ sLopţ alldeţ and sllenceŦ
Je used speech slanals from Lhe 1M1 daLabaseţ where
seamenL boundarles were ldenLlfledŦ 1he SlSţ CA and proposed ACC
alaorlLhms are used Lo selecL from a seL of 132 feaLuresŦ 8esulLs show
LhaL Lhe overall performance of ACC ls beLLer Lhan LhaL of boLh CA
and SlSţ where Lhe averaae classlflcaLlon accuracv of ACCţ CA and
SlS over all Lhe cases are ť 84Ŧ22Ʒţ 83Ŧ49Ʒ and 83Ŧ19Ʒ respecLlvelvŦ
CC-CLU5IC-
n Lhls paperţ we presenLed a novel feaLure selecLlon search
procedure based on Lhe AnL Colonv CpLlmlzaLlon
meLaheurlsLlcŦ 1he proposed alaorlLhm uLlllzes boLh Lhe local
lmporLance of feaLures and overall performance of subseLs Lo
search Lhrouah Lhe feaLure space for opLlmal soluLlonsŦ Jhen
used Lo selecL feaLures for a speech segment c|ass|f|cat|on
problemţ Lhe proposed alaorlLhm ouLperformed boLh sLepwlseŴ
and CAŴbased feaLure selecLlon meLhodsŦ
Hyper spectral remote sensing is used in a wide array of real-life applications.
Although originally developed for mining and geology (the ability of hyper
spectral imaging to identify various minerals makes it ideal for the mining and
oil industries, where it can be used to look for ore and oil.
keferences
ż1Ž AŦLŦ 8lum and ÞŦ ºLanalevŦ SelecLlon of relevanL feaLures and examples
ln machlne learnlna"Ŧ ArLlflclal nLelllaenceţ 97ť243Ŷ271ţ 1997Ŧ
ż2Ž MŦAŦ PallŦ CorrelaLlonŴbased feaLure selecLlon for machlne learnlnaŦ
Þh Lheslsţ 1he unlverslLv of JalkaLoţ 1999Ŧ
ż3Ž 8Ŧ kohavlŦ Jrappers for performance enhancemenL and obllvlous
declslon araphsŦ Þh Lheslsţ SLanford unlverslLvţ 1993Ŧ
ż4Ž !Ŧ klLLlerŦ ºleaLure seL search alaorlLhms"Ŧ n CŦ PŦ Chenţ edlLorţ ÞaLLern
8ecoanlLlon and Slanal ÞrocesslnaŦ Sl[hoff and -oordhoffţ Lhe
-eLherlandsţ 1978Ŧ
ż3Ž ÞŦ Þudllţ !Ŧ -ovovlcovaţ and !Ŧ klLLlerŦ ºlloaLlna search meLhods ln
feaLure selecLlon"Ŧ ÞaLLern 8ecoanlLlon LeLLersţ 13ť1119Ŵ1123ţ 1994Ŧ
żŽ ÞŦMŦ -arendra and kŦ lukunaaaŦ ºA branh and bound alaorlLhm for
feaLure subseL selecLlon"Ŧ LLL 1ransacLlons on CompuLersţ CŴ2ť 917Ŵ
922ţ 1977Ŧ
ż7Ž !Ŧ ?ana and vŦ Ponavarţ ºleaLure subseL selecLlon uslna a aeneLlc
alaorlLhmţ" LLL 1ransacLlons on nLelllaenL SvsLemsţ 13ť 44Ŷ49ţ 1998Ŧ
ż8Ž MŦ CleLsosţ SŦCŦ Moualakakouţ CŦkŦ MaLsopoulosţ kŦSŦ -lklLaţ AŦSŦ
-lklLaţ and Ŧ keleklsŦ ºA CompuLerŴAlded laanosLlc SvsLem Lo
CharacLerlze C1 local Llver Leslonsť eslan and CpLlmlzaLlon of a
-eural -eLwork Classlfler" LLL 1ransacLlons on nformaLlon
1echnoloav ln 8lomedlclneţ 7ť 133Ŵ12ţ 2003Ŧ
Thank You

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