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UTILITIES PLANT

DESCRIPTION

Presented By: Zaheer Anwer
(UM UTY)
We Provide the Following Utilities
 Demin Water
 BFW
 Steam
 Power
 Cooling Water
 Instrument Air
 Inert Gas
 Air Conditioning
 Waste Management
 Potable Water
Water Sources
• Surface Source
–Includes streams, drainage
areas, reservoirs and rain water.

• Ground Water
–Includes wells and springs water.
F
X
K W
J
D G Z
E L Y
U

WELL AREA
N V
al
C O Can
H P
I M
Road

B S Q

A T R < 32 ppm

32-50 ppm

> 50 ppm
Canal Intake
Water Reservoir
Physical Properties

• Transparent and colorless liquid.
• Pure water has no taste.
• High surface tension.
• Same composition in liquid, solid
or gas form
Impurities in Water
Ionic and Nonionic & un- Gaseo
dissolved dissolved us

Catio Anionic Turbidity, silt, mud, dirt Carbon
nic and other suspended dioxide
matter Hydroge
Organic matter n sulfide
Calcium Bicarbona Microorganisms Ammoni
Magnesi te Bacteria a
um Carbonate Oil Methane
Sodium Hydroxide
Corrosion products Oxygen
Potassi Sulfate
um Chloride Chlorine
Ammoni Nitrate  
um Phosphate
Iron Silica
Mangan Organic
ese matter
Color
Poly
Lime

Alum

CLARIFIED
CLARIFIER
Pre-treatment
FILTERED
FILTER
SLUDGE WATER
of water
WATER
Principle of Clarifier
• Sedimentation
– Liquid solid separation process after the water
has been coagulated and flocculated.
• Coagulants
– Widely used Alum, Ferrous and ferric salts.

• Organic Polymers
– Called poly electrolytes used as a coagulant aids
to improve treatment.
– Long chain anionic polymers are normally used.

• Advantages with coagulation / Flocculation
i. settling rate increases
ii. Sludge formed denser
Lime Softening
• Lime softening is the process used to
reduce temporary hardness of water by
treatment with lime.

• Ca(HCO3)2 + Ca(OH)2  2CaCO3 + 2H2O
• Mg(HCO3)2 + Ca(OH)2 Mg(OH)2+ 2CaCO3 +2H2O
• CO2 + Ca(OH)2  CaCO3 + H2O
Clarifier Top View
Mixing Zone
Settling Zone
Deionization of Water

– Cation Exchange Resin
Removes cations from water

–Anion Exchange Resin
Removes anions from water
Ion Exchange Reactions
–Cation Exchange Reaction

+ + −− −−
Ca  SO4  Ca+ +  4SO
+ +  −  ++  −
− + Mg  Cl −  Mg +  Cl
RSO3 H +  − → RSO3  + + H  −
+
K  HCO HCO
3  K  3
Na+  SiO − −  Na+ 
SiO3− −
3
Ion Exchange Reactions

– Anion Exchange Reaction

SO −− SO −−
 4  4
 −  −

( )
 R N+ C H  O H− + H +
3 3 
 Cl
 − →


(
 R N+ C H 
3 3
)



C l
− + H +
O H −

 H C O3  H C O3
 
SiO3− − SiO3− −
Pre-heating
De-aerator Hydrazine

BFW and STEAM
V-201

distribution system
B-605
B-601/602
KS header

HS header
LS header
Power Generation
• Two Gas Turbines 18 MW Each

• Two Emergency diesel Generators 1.5 MW Each

• Fermont Generators ( for Emergency) 200 KW each
Power Generation
GAS TURBINE
Gas Turbine
Fuel
Atmospheric Ignition Exhaust
Air Source

Combustion
Chamber
Torque Output
Torque
Compressor Turbine
Output to
to driven Load
Accessories

Rotor
Gas Turbine Cycle
1 – 2 : Reversible Adiabatic Compression (Ideal)
1 – 2’ : Ir-reversible Adiabatic Compression (Actual)
2’– 3 : Constant Pressure Heat Supply in combustion chamber
3 – 4 : Reversible Adiabatic Expansion (Ideal)
3 – 4’ : Ir-reversible Adiabatic Expansion ( Actual)

3
T
2 2’

4’
4
1

S
FFC GAS TURBINES
No. of Gas turbines : 02
Gas Turbine make : General Electric Co. USA

DATA SUMMARY

Gas Turbine model series : MS-5001
(Specific model: PG-5341) : Single Shaft Unit
Gas Turbine application : Generator Drive
Base out put : 18 MW
Operation cycle : Simple
Shaft speed : 5089 rpm
Air inlet temp. : 43 Ċ
Exhaust temp. (On Gas fuel) : 482 Ċ
Atmospheric Pressure : 0.99 bar22
FFC GAS TURBINES
Compressor Section
Compressor type : Axial Flow Horizontal
Split Casing
No. of compressor stages : 17
Inlet Guide Vanes : Variable

Turbine Section
No. of Turbine Stages : Two

Combustion Section
Combustors : 10
( multiple combustors, reverse flow design)
Chamber Arrangement : Concentrically
(located around the compressor)
FFC GAS TURBINES
– Fuel nozzle : Pressure atomizing 1 per chamber
– Spark plugs : 02, Electrical type, spring injected, self
retracting
– Flame detectors: 02, ultra-violet type
• Starting system
– Starting device : Diesel Engine
• Reduction Gear
– Shaft speed ratio : 5089/3000 rpm
• Generator
– Type : Air cooled open ventilated
– Rating : 31375 kva
– Rpm : 3000
– Volts : 6300 volts
– Frequency : 50 Hz.
COOLING WATER BASIN
COOLING TOWER

UTILITIES
PROCESS
Air Conditioning
Absorption Chillers

• Plant site 02 Units (210 Tons Each)

• Township 02 Units (245 Tons Each) &
01 Unit (450 Tons)
Absorption Chillers

Use Water as Refrigerant & LiBr as absorbent

Working Principle:

1) Water Boils and Flash-Cools Itself at Low
Temperatures When Maintained at a High Vacuum.
(e.g. At 6.35 mm Hg B.P. of water is 4.4 °C)

2) Some Salt Solutions have ability to absorb water
vapors.
Main components
• Evaporator:
Returning chilled water is cooled indirectly by water
sprayed over tubes. Due to vacuum, water flashes and cools
the remaining water.

• Absorber:
Strong salt solution absorbs water vapor flashed in the
evaporator. Total heat load is transferred to cooling water.

• Heat Exchanger:
Used to improve cycle efficiency by heat between weak
solution leaving the Absorber & strong hot solution returning
from the Generator.
Main components (Cont’d.)

Generator:

A steam heated section used to restore solution
concentration by boiling off the water vapor absorbed .

Condenser:

The water vapor boiled off in the Generator is condensed
in this section and returned to the Evaporator
Air Conditioning
The Climatisation System

Air Duct
window

room
Coil
Fan
C

C
Pump Wall
Control
chilled valve
water chiller
Waste Management

• Liquid Wastes
Cooling Tower Blow Down
Oily water
Storm/ washing water
Chemically Contaminated Water

• Solid Wastes
Chromate Sludge
Lime Sludge
Chromate Removal Plant

• Why to remove Chromate?
• Electro chemical Cells.

6H2O + 6e- 3H2 + 6OH-
3Fe 3Fe+2 + 6e-
3Fe+2 + 4OH- + CrO4 + 4H2O 3Fe(OH)3 + Cr(OH)3
Zn+2 + 2OH- Zn(OH)2

• Sludge Contact Clarifier.
• Anthracite Filters
• Disposal options
Chromate Removal Plant

Clarifier & Filters Electrochemical Cell
Chemical and Oily Water treatment

• Separation of oil from water
• Neutralization of Chemical water

• Disposal Options
Evaporation Ponds
SCARP Drain line

• Lime and Chromate Sludge Disposal
Instrument and Plant Air

• Requirement
• Quality
• Moisture Removal
• Filtration
• Difference between Instrument and plant Air
T o P la n t A ir
IN S T R U M E N T A IR P L A N T
Header

A ir D r y e r s

In s tr u m e n t A ir S to r a g e T a n k
c a p a c ity 1 3 0 0 N M C
F r o m M a in
C o m p re s s o r
F ilte r s

A fte r C o o le r A fte r C o o le r
2 n d S ta g e 2 n d S ta g e

A ir A ir
In te r S ta g e
In te r S ta g e
C o o le r
C o o le r

1 s t S ta g e 1 s t S ta g e
T o In s tr u m e n t
A ir H e a d e r A ir C o m p r e s s o r A ir C o m p re s s o r
Inert Gas Plant
• Inert Gas Uses
– Purging of vessels, tanks, pipelines, heat exchangers
– To maintain inert atmosphere in oil consoles
– Consumption during Shutdown/Turnaround
– Blanketing of catalysts

• Generation Processes
– Natural Gas Combustion
(Process Employed at Base Unit)
– Air Liquefaction Process
(Process Employed at Expansions Unit)
Inert gas Generation

• Natural Gas Combustion

CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O
2CH4+ 3O2 2CO + 4H2O
• Main Equipments

– Combustion Chamber
– Main Compressors
– Carbon Dioxide absorbers
– Booster Compressors
– Storage tank
Inert Gas Generation
CO2 and Moisture Removal

CO2 Adsorbers
Ultrasorbers
Condensate traps