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Basic Transmission


Access Network Support 1


1. Transmission Network Topology
2. Radio Wave Propagation
3. Free Space Loss and Fade
4. PDH Hierarchy
5. Frequency Band and Channels
6. Transmission HOP and
7. Transmission Antenna
8. Modulation Technique etc.

Access Network Support 2

28 SWS 1/0 SWS 1/0 BTS Network BTS V.11 BTS BTS G.70 3 Access Network Support 3 . Transmission System ILA OTM Backbon OXC OTM e OADM OADM Network OADM OTM ILA Metropolitan ADM ADM REG Network ADM ADM ADM ADM ADM Access ADM TM ADM Network ADM STM-1 PDH End-user BTS BTS V.

Disadvantage: o High capacity requires near TX end o One link failure affects all sites after that link. o Frequency planning is easier. o Extended bandwidth TX Point or BSC end BTS End or Single Point Access Network Support 4 . Advantage: o Low concentration of equipment at TX point. Chain Topology This type of network is suitable for long distant narrow transmission system like along roads.

Star Topology This type of topology is suitable small surrounded network such as city urban area. Advantage: o Independent link for BTS o One link failure do not affect many link. o Require large space for antennas mounting. o Difficult frequency planning. Disadvantage: o Require Clear LOS o High concentration of equipment at TX point. TX Point or BSC end BTS End or Single Point Access Network Support 5 .

Tree Topology This type of topology is suitable for small or medium surrounded network such as city urban area. Advantage: o Independent link for BTS o Short hop distance and so require small antenna system. TX Point or BSC end BTS End or Single Point Access Network Support 6 . 1+1 hop for protection 1+1 protection may be implemented for high capacity link. o Easy to find LOS o Frequency reuses is easier. Disadvantage: o One link failure may affects many link o High concentration of equipment at TX point.

Ring Topology This type of topology is normally used in metropolitan area where high availability of network is required. o MUX equipment is required for digital cross connection. TX Point or BSC end BTS End or Single Point Access Network Support 7 . o Easy to monitor from Management System. Disadvantage: o Every site must be connected with it’s two neighbors sites. Advantage: o Traffic can be rerouted easily if any link fails. o High bandwidth required.

Radio wave propagation Refracted Direct Reflected Propagation Technique Free space propagation Refraction Reflection and scattering Diffraction Absorption Access Network Support 8 .

Power Level in a Fading free condition GTX GRX Antenna Gain Antenna Gain Power Level A = Free Space Loss PTXOutputPower Gas Absorption (Obstacle Loss) PRXInputPower BER Receiver Threshold Distance Access Network Support 9 .

4 + 20 log d + 20 log f Where d = distance in km f = frequency in GHz A = 92. Free Space Loss d f Basic Free space loss calculation A [dB]= 92.4 + 20 log 30 + 20 log 15 = 145 dB Access Network Support 10 .

Fade Margin Power Level A = Free Space Loss PTXOutputPower Gas Absorption (Obstacle Loss) PRXInputPower M = Fading margin Receiver Threshold (BER=10-3 . BER=10-6 ) Distance The performance of the system is affected by the path conditions The fading margin is designed in order to overcome the loss aroused due to fading condition. Access Network Support 11 .

544 Mbps A typical Plesiochronous Drop & • A multi-frame is a series of consecutive frames (16 in Europe. {(8*24)+1}*8000=1544000 bps or 1.048 Mbps • The corresponding T1 frame used in USA contains 24 speech channels with 8-bit coding and 1 framing bit. Access Network Support 12 . Insert 12 in USA). yielding a 8* 32 * 8000 = 2 048 000 bps or 2. • A frame is transmitted 8000 times each second.Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) • One frame thus contains one octet of each of the carried channels.

PDH Standard Japan Europe North America 565Mb/s 400Mb/s 274Mb/s ×4 ×4 139Mb/s 100Mb/s ×6 ×4 45Mb/s ×3 34Mb/s 32Mb/s ×4 ×7 ×5 8Mb/s 6.3Mb/s ×4 ×4 ×4 2 Mb/s 1.5Mb/s 1.5Mb/s NO Global Standard Access Network Support 13 .3Mb/s 6.

– The bit rate is 8.448 Mbps. containing four E1multiplexes (120channels).PDH Hierarchy (European Standard) • The first PDH multiplex level is E1. • The third PDH multiplex level. yielding 480 ii) b = E2 = 8. (4 *256 bits for the multiplexes and 4 * 8 bits for justification and frame alignment).048 Mbps. 30 channels and 2 control channels). E4 contains four E3 multiplexes (1920 channels). containing (as noted before.368 Mbps iv) d = E4 = 139. 2.264 Mbps • The fourth PDH multiplex level. E3 contains four E2 multiplexes i) a = E1 = 2.048 Mbps (called tributaries). Access Network Support 14 . iii) c = E3 = 34. containing frames of 1056bits. • The second PDH multiplex level is E2.448 Mbps channels.

Limitations of PDH 140/34Mbit/s 34/140Mbit/s electrical Optical opticaelectrical Optical de multiplex multiplex signal l signal / 34/8Mbit/s DD 8/34Mbit/s F / optical de multiplex multiplex de multiplex multiplex 8/2Mbit/s 2/8Mbit/s 2Mbit/s Lack of performance monitoring and management Less Flexibility Weak O&M features ----> no Overheads Access Network Support 15 .

SDH Global Standard PDH SDH STM-1 North American STM-4 European STM-16 Japan STM-64 Non Unified Unified International International Interface Interface Access Network Support 16 .

080 252 STM-16 2488.280 4032 Access Network Support 17 .520 63 STM-4 622.320 1008 STM-64 9953. SDH Hierarchy Level Speed (Mbps) Capacity (No of E1) STM-1 155.

Frequency Sub-Band TX 21952.00 MHz RX TX Frequency range between TX and RX frequency Channel Spacing: Frequency range between two adjacent channels 21. Duplex Distance: 23002. 11GHz. 15GHz.00 MHz RX TX frequency of one end must be same of RX frequency of the other end.6 GHz Frequency Band used by Grameen Phone Duplex (1050 7GHz. 38GH MHz) Access Network Support 18 . 8GHz.6 GHz 23. 23GHz.

75 MHz 3.75 MHz 7 MHz 14 MHz 8X2 Mbit/s (14 MHz) 21957. Channel Spacing and Bandwidth 1.5 MHz 7 MHz 4X2 Mbit/s (7 MHz) 21953.25 MHz 14 MHz 28 MHz 16X2 Mbit/s (28 MHz) 21964.25 MHz Access Network Support 19 .5 MHz) 21952.5 MHz 2x2 Mbit/s (3.00 MHz 3.

Transmission Hop Terminals Terminal consists of HOP = 2 Terminals (Tx+Rx) Indoor Unit: Traffic Related Outdoor Unit: Frequency Related Coaxial cable/ Waveguide: Interconnection Access Network Support 20 .

Hop Configuration Unprotected terminal 1+0 Protected terminal 1+1 Access Network Support 21 .

Protected System Hot Stand-by and Space Diversity f1 f1 TX RX Access Network Support 22 .

Protected System Cont…. Single Antenna system HSB or WSB f1 or (f1+ f2) Access Network Support 23 .

Protected System Cont…. WSB and Frequency Diversity f1 Alarm f2 TX RX No TX Switching. only RX switching Access Network Support 24 .

Transmission Antenna Large antenna Low frequency Advantage: Long range Interference suppression High Antenna Gain Small antenna High frequency Advantage: Less wind load Less visibility Lower cost for the antenna and the installation Disadvantage: Low gain Vulnerable to Access Network Support interference 25 .

Antenna Type (Performance) With radom ”Standard” Absorbing material (high performance) ”High performance” Access Network Support 26 .

Modulation PSK: Phase is changed in modulator QAM: Phase and Amplitude both are changed. Access Network Support 27 .

Modulation: Technique how intelligent signal is transmitted over carrier signal Access Network Support 28 . Modulation Cont…. • Two symbols per bit can be transmitted. the bits “11” are represented. Each symbol’s phase is compared relative to the previous symbol. the bits “00” are represented. • If there is no phase shift (0 degrees).180 and 270 degrees. 90. C-QPSK • QPSK four phases 0. If there is a phase shift of 180 degrees.

Comparison of Different Modulation Techniques Access Network Support 29 . Modulation Cont….