Water Chemistry

What exactly is it? Examples of water chemistry. How is it measured? Definitions Problematic Elements Why is it important?

1/ GE / June 7, 2004

Water Chemistry
What is it?
Basically ± water chemistry is everything that can be found in a sample. Water consists of suspended and dissolved solids. Suspended solids = Things you can filter out using water filtration methods (e.g. branches, rocks, dirt) Dissolved solids = Ions and elements dissolved in the water (e.g. iron, sulphates, calcium) that can only be removed by water purification methods
2/ GE / June 7, 2004

Water Chemistry
Common Water Compounds
Cations Calcium (Ca2+) Magnesium (Mg2+) Sodium (Na+) Potassium (K+) Iron (Fe2+) Barium (Ba2+) Strontium (Sr2+) Anions Chloride (Cl-) Sulfate (SO4)2Bicarbonate (HCO3)Phosphate (PO4)3Fluoride (F-) Silica (SiO2)

3/ GE / June 7, 2004

Water Chemistry
Example Water Analysis

4/ GE / June 7, 2004

Water Chemistry
Units of Measurements seen in a water analysis
Milligrams per Liter (mg/L) Milli-equivalent per Liter (Meq/L) Parts per Million (PPM) Parts per Billion (PPB) Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) mg/L as CaCO3

5/ GE / June 7, 2004

Water Chemistry
Alkalinity ± ppm as CaCO3 > Comprised of bicarbonate, carbonate, and hydroxide ions. Earth¶s natural buffering system ± keeping everything neutral ± M ± Alkalinity (Methyl Orange) Total Alkalinity ± P ± Alkalinity (Phenolphthalein) Brackish water > Water that is neither falls in the category of salt water, nor in the category of fresh water. It holds the middle between either one of the categories ± TDS up to 17,000ppm.
6/ GE / June 7, 2004

Water Chemistry
Cation and Anions > Cations are ions with positive state > Anions are ions with negative state > Water analysis will have a balance between the two. Conductivity > Measurement of the ability of water to transmit electricity due to dissolved ions (more ions = higher conductivity) > Measured in Mhos/cm or mS/cm > No exact conversion ± but direct relationship between TDS and Conductivity.
7/ GE / June 7, 2004

Water Chemistry
LSI ± Langlier Saturation Index > Method of reporting scaling or corrosive potentials based on the saturation of calcium carbonate. > Negative LSI = corrosive > Positive LSI = scale calcium carbonate Osmotic Pressure > The pressure and potential energy difference that exists between solutions on either side of a semi-permeable membrane. This pressure is caused by the tendency of water to flow in osmosis. Osmotic pressure must first be overcome by water pressure in the reverse osmosis process.
8/ GE / June 7, 2004

Water Chemistry
pH > pH measures the acidity or basicity of the water ± Acidic = 0.0 ± 7.0 ± Neutral = 7.0 ± Basic = 7.0-14.0 > Variation in pH can effect: ± Scaling potential ± Taste of water ± Rejection rate of membranes ± Solubility of many ions ± Level of CO2
9/ GE / June 7, 2004

Water Chemistry
SDI ± Silt Density Index > A measurement of the rate at which a 0.45 micron filter disc is plugged under standardized test conditions. Silt density index (SDI) determinations are used to estimate the rate fouling or plugging will occur. > Typically and SDI < 3.0 is recommended for feed to the RO Solubility > The maximum amount of a material that can be dissolved in water or another liquid. > A solution is called "saturated" if it contains the maximum dissolvable amount.

± Precipitation occurs saturation levels.



10 / GE / June 7, 2004

Water Chemistry
TSS (Total Suspended Solids) > A measure of the suspended organic and inorganic solids in water. > Can be filtered out using standard filter methods TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) > The total sum of all cations and anions in a water sample. > World Health organization limit for drinking water is TDS < 500ppm
11 / GE / June 7, 2004

Water Chemistry
Temperature > Critical design parameter ± Affects pump pressure ± Affects rejection ± Affects solubility of ions Turbidity > Suspension of fine particles that do not readily settle out of solution. Causes it to be cloudy. > Max of 1.0 NTU (Nepholometric Turbidity Units) for feed water recommended.
12 / GE / June 7, 2004

Water Chemistry
Problematic Elements
Although at high enough concentrations ± all elements can be problematic, the following are those that need to be defined and accounted for any water quality
‡Barium ‡Chlorine ‡Hardness ‡Calcium ‡Magnesium ‡H2S ‡Iron ‡Manganese ‡Silica ‡Sulphates
13 / GE / June 7, 2004

Water Chemistry
Found in some well waters When combined with Sulphate ± forms Barium Sulphate (BaSO4) BaSO4 scales the membrane and is difficult to clean. Solubility decreases as Sulphate levels increase and temperatures decrease. Can be controlled to a point by antiscalants.
14 / GE / June 7, 2004

Water Chemistry
Chlorine usually found in public water sources. Used to disinfect and precipitate ions by oxidation. Chlorine can be added as: gas (Cl2) , liquid (sodium
hypochlorite) or powder (calcium hypochlorite)

Will hydrolyze Polyamide membrane Chlorine CAN NOT be allowed to reach membrane. Can be removed with activated carbon and sodium meta bisulfite.
15 / GE / June 7, 2004

Water Chemistry
Is a measure of the amount of calcium and magnesium salts in water. > The term "hardness" comes from the fact that it is hard to get soap suds from soap or detergents in hard water. Calcium > Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) causes scaling on membranes that can be controlled by lowering pH > Calcium sulphate (CaSO4) causes hard to clean scaling Can be reduced using a softener or Nanofiltration or by dosing antiscalant.

16 / GE / June 7, 2004

Water Chemistry
H2S (Hydrogen Sulfide)
Relatively uncommon in ground water Rotten egg odor Deadly in high concentrations Removal by oxidation with chlorine or O3 or by degasification typically AFTER RO. Oxidized H2S is elemental sulfur ± easily fouls membranes to uncleanable state H2S in gaseous form will pass through membranes
17 / GE / June 7, 2004

Water Chemistry
One of the more problematic fouling compounds Ferrous iron (Fe2+): soluble / reduced form Ferric iron (Fe3+): insoluble / oxidized form *FORM THAT CAUSES FOULING PROBLEMS* Reverse Osmosis - Fe < 0.1 ppm Can be removed with chlorine or potassium permanganate in combination with a greensand filter or ultrafiltration. Iron reducing bacteria can cause bio-film as well.
18 / GE / June 7, 2004

Water Chemistry
Present in both well and surface waters Is soluble in non oxygenated waters. MnO2 is oxidized state that causes scaling problems like iron. Can be removed with chlorine or potassium permanganate in combination with a greensand filter or ultrafiltration.

19 / GE / June 7, 2004

Water Chemistry
SiO2 - silicon dioxide at neutral pH Silica solubility is pH sensitive ± higher is better Total Silica = Reactive + Unreactive (Collodial) > Reactive ± increased solubility at higher temp, pH < 7.0, pH >7.8 > Collodial ± Acts like a solid, causes of scaling Silica scaling is near impossible to clean. Control scaling by controlling pH, dosing antiscalant, and defining recovery threshold for RO.
20 / GE / June 7, 2004

Water Chemistry
Usually seen as SO4 Readily reacts with: > Calcium ± CaSO4 > Barium ± BaSO4 > Strontium ± SrSO4 These species cause problematic scaling on membranes Control by dosing antiscalants and defining recovery threshold for RO.
21 / GE / June 7, 2004

Water Chemistry
Why is Water Chemistry Important?
Knowing what you¶re dealing with can help you determine > Correct treatment method ± Softeners ± Chemical Feed ± Pre and post ± Greensand/Multi Media Filters ± MMF ± Nanofiltration (NF) ± Reverse Osmosis (RO) > Predict possible problems that may occur > Can help you understand what the customer needs and wants.

22 / GE / June 7, 2004

PTTA Water analysis
Ph: Conductivity: Alkalinity: Sulfur SO4: Chloride: Magnesium hardness as CaCo3: Total Hardness as CaCo3: Free chlorine: Sodium Na: Silica as SiO2: Min Temp: Max Temp: SDI: 8 650 uS/cm 160 as CaCo3 65 ppm 90 ppm 50 ppm 170 ppm 0.6 ppm 108 ppm 4 ppm 20 C 31 C Less than 4
23 / GE / June 7, 2004

Brain full? Questions ?

24 / GE / June 7, 2004

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.