Anatomical landmarks Anatomical landmarks

ntroduction ntroduction
M.M Devan Dictum "Aim of a prosthodontist is M.M Devan Dictum "Aim of a prosthodontist is
not only the meticulous replacement of what is not only the meticulous replacement of what is
missing, but also perpetual preservation of missing, but also perpetual preservation of
what is present¨ what is present¨
Complete denture must function in harmony Complete denture must function in harmony
with the remaining natural tissues so for the with the remaining natural tissues so for the
success, a through knowledge of the anatomy success, a through knowledge of the anatomy
is a must. is a must.
Maxillary landmarks Maxillary landmarks
1. 1. Labial frenum Labial frenum
2. 2. Labial vestibule Labial vestibule
3. 3. Buccal frenum Buccal frenum
4. 4. Buccal vestibule Buccal vestibule
5. 5. Distobuccal sulcus Distobuccal sulcus
6. 6. Alveolar ridge Alveolar ridge
7. 7. Tuberosity Tuberosity
8. 8. Hamular notch Hamular notch
9. 9. Hard palate (flat portions) Hard palate (flat portions)
10. 10. Fovea palatani Fovea palatani
11. 11. Mid palatine suture Mid palatine suture
12. 12. ncissive papillae ncissive papillae
13. 13. Rugae Rugae
Labial frenum Labial frenum
Single band of fibrous Single band of fibrous
connective tissue connective tissue
Properly relieved Properly relieved
Labial vestibule Labial vestibule
Extends from labial frenum Extends from labial frenum
to buccal frenum. to buccal frenum.
Proper lip support should be Proper lip support should be
provided. provided.
Buccal frenum Buccal frenum
Consist of one or more Consist of one or more
bands. bands.
Relieved Relieved
nfluenced by 3 muscles nfluenced by 3 muscles
Orbicularis oris (forward) Orbicularis oris (forward)
Buccinator (backward) Buccinator (backward)
Caninus (position) Caninus (position)
Buccal vestibule Buccal vestibule
Buccal frenum to hamular Buccal frenum to hamular
notch notch
nfluenced by nfluenced by
Buccinator Buccinator
Modiolus Modiolus
Coronid process of mandible Coronid process of mandible
Alveolar ridge Alveolar ridge
Ridge left after the extraction Ridge left after the extraction
of teeth. of teeth.
Mucosa is firmly attached to Mucosa is firmly attached to
the periosteum of the bone. the periosteum of the bone.
Consist of dense collagenous fibers. Consist of dense collagenous fibers.
Maxillary tuberosity Maxillary tuberosity
Posterior convexity Posterior convexity
Combination syndrome Combination syndrome
Hamular notch Hamular notch
Pterygomaxillary notch Pterygomaxillary notch
Distal extension of denture Distal extension of denture
dentifying the PPS area. dentifying the PPS area.
Situated between the tuberosity and Situated between the tuberosity and
hamulus of the medial pterygoid plate. hamulus of the medial pterygoid plate.
Hard palate Hard palate
Flat areas as secondary Flat areas as secondary
retentive areas. retentive areas.
U shaped palate U shaped palate
Flat palate (not good support) Flat palate (not good support)
V shaped palate (least favorable) V shaped palate (least favorable)
Fovea palatine Fovea palatine
Formed by coalescence of Formed by coalescence of
several mucous gland ducts. several mucous gland ducts.
Landmark for location of Landmark for location of
vibrating line. vibrating line.
Mid palatine suture Mid palatine suture
Junction of palatine process Junction of palatine process
of maxilla. of maxilla.
Covered by a thin mucosa Covered by a thin mucosa
Slightly elevated or raised Slightly elevated or raised
Proper relief required. Proper relief required.
ncisive papillae ncisive papillae
Pad of fiberous connective Pad of fiberous connective
tissue over incisive foramen tissue over incisive foramen
Proper relief should be given. Proper relief should be given.
Aid in arrangement of anterior teeth and Aid in arrangement of anterior teeth and
jaw relation. jaw relation.
Rugae Rugae
Resist the horizontal forces Resist the horizontal forces
against the denture. against the denture.
Should not be over Should not be over
compressed. compressed.
Mandibular land marks Mandibular land marks
1. 1. Labial frenum Labial frenum
2. 2. Labial vestibule Labial vestibule
3. 3. Buccal frenum Buccal frenum
4. 4. Buccal vestibule Buccal vestibule
5. 5. Buccal shelf area Buccal shelf area
6. 6. Retromolar pad Retromolar pad
7. 7. Pear shaped pad Pear shaped pad
8. 8. Lingual frenum Lingual frenum
9. 9. Lingual vestibule Lingual vestibule
Labial frenum Labial frenum
Single narrow band Single narrow band
Usually shorter and Usually shorter and
wider than maxillary. wider than maxillary.
Labial vestibule Labial vestibule
Between labial and Between labial and
buccal frenum buccal frenum
Support to the lower lip. Support to the lower lip.
Buccal frenum Buccal frenum
Single or more bands. Single or more bands.
More clearance required More clearance required
Buccal vestibule Buccal vestibule
Extend up to external Extend up to external
oblique ridge. oblique ridge.
Denture borders may Denture borders may
overextend in this region overextend in this region
Buccal shelf area Buccal shelf area
t is the primary stress t is the primary stress
bearing area. bearing area.
Consist of thick cortical Consist of thick cortical
bone & dense connective bone & dense connective
tissue tissue
Retromolar pad area Retromolar pad area
Forms the distal end of Forms the distal end of
the denture. the denture.
Consist of loose Consist of loose
connective tissue connective tissue
Pear shaped pad Pear shaped pad
Aggregation of mucous Aggregation of mucous
glands and loose, glands and loose,
connective tissue. connective tissue.
Formed after residual Formed after residual
scar of third molar. scar of third molar.
Muscle attachments Muscle attachments
Posteriorly Posteriorly ÷ ÷ temporalis temporalis tendons tendons
Laterally Laterally ÷ ÷ buccinator buccinator
Medially Medially ÷ ÷ pterygomandibular pterygomandibular raphe raphe and superior and superior
constrictor of pharynx. constrictor of pharynx.
Lingual frenum Lingual frenum
Fibrous band of tissue Fibrous band of tissue
that overlies genioglossus that overlies genioglossus
Proper clearance required Proper clearance required
Lingual vestibule Lingual vestibule
Divided into three Divided into three
Anterior vestibule Anterior vestibule
Middle vestibule Middle vestibule
Distolingual vestibule Distolingual vestibule
Anterior Anterior
Also called sublingual crescent area Also called sublingual crescent area
Structures present Structures present
Genioglossus muscles Genioglossus muscles
Lingual frenum Lingual frenum
Anterior portion of sublingual gland Anterior portion of sublingual gland
Middle Middle
Also called mylohyoid vestibule Also called mylohyoid vestibule
s the largest portion of lingual vestibule s the largest portion of lingual vestibule
Structures seen Structures seen
Mylohyoid muscle Mylohyoid muscle
Sublingual gland Sublingual gland
Posterior Posterior
Also called lateral throat form or Also called lateral throat form or
retromylohyoid fossa retromylohyoid fossa
Boundaries Boundaries
Anteriorly Anteriorly ÷ ÷ mylohyoid muscle mylohyoid muscle
Laterally Laterally ÷ ÷ pear shaped pad pear shaped pad
Posteriorly Posteriorly ÷ ÷ retromylohyoid curtain retromylohyoid curtain
Medially Medially - - tongue tongue

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