# Basic Background 001

Electricity

Introduction 
  

We shall explore electricity What is an amp ? What is a volt ? What is an ohm ?

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Ampere Defined
The ampere is that constant current which, if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible circular crosssection, and placed 1 metre apart in vacuum, would produce between these conductors a force equal to 2 × 107 Newton per metre of length.

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the precise definition is not very helpful  We need to get a feel for electricity  4 BK 001 11/04/2011 .Did that help ? For most of you. probably not  Unfortunately despite precision.

Basic Principles     Electricity is dynamic It moves to do its work We shall start considering water Here is a bucket containing 10 litres of water 5 BK 001 11/04/2011 .

A tank of water   Six 10 litre buckets of water fill the tank completely How much water is now in the tank ? 6 BK 001 11/04/2011 .

Exercise 01 Please calculate the volume of water now in the tank  Check your answer by clicking above  Move to the next slide when you are ready  7 BK 001 11/04/2011 .

it is not flowing Get a stopwatch ready Open the tap .what happens to the water ? Time the water flowing out of the tank 8 BK 001 11/04/2011 .Measuring Water Flow     At first the water is static.

Calculating the flow-rate    The water in the tank empties in 30 seconds The volume of water held by the tank is 60 litres What is the flow-rate ? 9 BK 001 11/04/2011 .

Exercise 02 Please calculate the rate that water now leaves the tank  Give your answer in litres per second  Check your answer by clicking above  Move to the next slide when you are ready  10 BK 001 11/04/2011 .

Slowing down the flow of water    How could we halve the rate of flow of water from the tank ? An easy method would be to close the tap partially Write down any other methods that you think could limit the flow of water from the tank 11 BK 001 11/04/2011 .

not water    The next few slides depict electrons as small balls that we can put in a bucket We cannot do this in reality. but the explanation holds true for the flow of electricity Please allow your thoughts to suspend belief 12 BK 001 11/04/2011 .Electricity.

Replacing water with electrons  Now we shall refill the tank with electrons instead (take the water out first!)  Use the bucket to fill the tank  Turn the tap on and allow electrons to flow through the piping BK 001 13 11/04/2011 .

counting as they pass the tap 14 BK 001 11/04/2011 .A flow of electrons = current   Electrons flow analogously to water We observe the flow of electrons.

Rate of electron flow = amp      As with the water we observe the number of electrons flowing past the tap We have counted a certain number of electrons per second Electricity flows in electrons per second We call this amperes ( amps ) Amps = number of electrons per second BK 001 15 11/04/2011 .

6 X 10-19 coulombs 6.25 X 1018 electrons make 1 coulomb That is a lot of electrons 16 BK 001 11/04/2011 .The Electron ± a charge carrier       Carries a small amount of electricity Known as a charge The unit of electrical charge is the coulomb One electron carries 1.

Amps.25 X 1018 electrons per second Amps are therefore a measure of the flow of electrons in a circuit per second The amp is often seen in circuit diagrams using the letter I 17 BK 001 11/04/2011 . coulombs. electrons     1 ampere = a flow of 1 coulomb per second 1 ampere = 6.

we will move on to the volt 18 BK 001 11/04/2011 .Review    Make sure that you understand the principle of the flow of electrons being referred to as current The flow of electrons in any circuit is responsible for the operation of that circuit When you are ready.

The Volt       Electrons don¶t like moving around A force is needed to move them The force is known as the volt More volts make more amps (electrons) flow around a circuit per second Think of a battery as an electron pump Twice the number of volts push twice the number of electrons per second BK 001 11/04/2011 19 .

d.d. )   Volts create a potential difference (voltage) across a circuit or component Here the p. is 1.5 volts 20 BK 001 11/04/2011 .Potential Difference ( p.

5 v pushes a certain number of electrons around our circuit per second That number is so high it becomes unwieldy Therefore we measure the flow of electrons in amps. not electrons per second The flow of electrons is known as current 21 BK 001 11/04/2011 .Zillions of electrons!!!     1.

e.Electrons do the work     A bulb lights because electrons flow through it Volts push the electrons Manufacturers often specify current i. the number of electrons per second the device requires We need to choose the volts carefully to avoid pushing too many electrons into our device at once BK 001 22 11/04/2011 .

we will move on to Resistance 23 BK 001 11/04/2011 .Voltage summary     Volts push electrons around a circuit More volts means more current (amps) Be sure to understand this before moving on When you are ready.

it crimps The rate of flow of water reduces 24 BK 001 11/04/2011 .Resistance   Hit the pipe with a hammer.

Resisting the flow       The water¶s flow rate reduces Why ? We have made it difficult for the water to flow This is analogous to resistance in circuitry We have created resistance to the flow of water We need to compare this to electricity BK 001 11/04/2011 25 .

Amps = volts/ resistance How can we raise the amps ? 26 BK 001 11/04/2011 .Electrical Resistance       Electrons flow through metal easily Carbon is harder for electrons to travel through Carbon forms basis of most resistors Unit of resistance is the ohm .

disaster We must regulate the flow of electrons Use a resistor in series with the LED Resistor will make life difficult for electrons flowing in the circuit and reduce the flow rate BK 001 11/04/2011 27 .Operating an LED       Requires around 35 mA An LED has little resistance Put an LED across 12v battery .

= V/I 28 BK 001 11/04/2011 .Calculate the Resistance    Use the Ohms Triangle to calculate resistance Use a finger to cover the R symbol Resistance = V/I Resistance = volts/ amps OR  .

Exercise 03       Calculate the required resistor value 12 volts is available from the battery 35 milliamps is needed in the LED Use Ohm¶s Triangle if you cannot remember the formula for resistance Check your answer by clicking above Move to the next slide when you are ready BK 001 11/04/2011 29 .

Conclusion       Amps measures number of electrons per second that flow in a circuit Each electron carries charge .coulombs Coulombs per second = amps Electrons per second = amps Volts pump the electrons Ohms resist the movement of electrons BK 001 11/04/2011 30 .

The End Thank You 31 BK 001 11/04/2011 .

Answer 001 6X 10 = 60 litres of water 32 BK 001 11/04/2011 .

Answer 002 litres of water flow through the tap in 30 seconds  The rate of flow of water is  60 litres/30 seconds = 2 litres per second 33 BK 001  60 11/04/2011 .

Exercise 03    12 volts is divided by 35 milliamps 12/ 35 x 10-3 = 342.86 ohms (approximately) Thus we need a resistor of 343 . (or more) to limit the flow of electrons in the circuit 34 BK 001 11/04/2011 .

com/resistor.bsimotors.jpg 35 BK 001 11/04/2011 .References  http://www.

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