Presentation on Packed tower

SUBMITTED TO: Er. Raj Kumar Lect. Of chemical deptt.

Submitted by: Kunwar pal Che ¶05¶ 522020664

Packed Column .

Types of Packing Ring Saddle Structured Packing .

the gas-pressure drop increases with increases liquid rate. Countercurrent flow of liquid and gas through packing: ‡ Generally liquid as water is flowing downward direction through the column and gas is flowing in the upward direction through the column.Operating conditions: 1. At a fixed gas velocity. ‡ .

. ‡ The free area for gas flow become smeller. This is known as loading. ‡ Than the liquid holdup increases rapidly with gas rate.‡ This is because of the reduced free cross section available for flow of gas. and pressure drop rises more rapidly.

and the entire column may fill with liquid. this is called flooding. . ‡ The liquid rapidly accumulate.‡ Further increase in gas velocity. the drop pressure rises more rapidly. and the flooding point has been reached. ‡ In the column the liquid become the continuous phase.

Tower Operation ‡ Liquid in tower reduces space available for gas flow ± Result is higher (P ‡ Loading ± gas flow rate at which liquid hold-up starts to increase ‡ Flooding ± gas flow rate at which liquid rapidly accumulates and column fills with liquid .

or covered by a stagnant film of liquid ± Esp. at low liquid flow rates .Contact between Liquid & Gas ‡ Ideally. liquid flows in thin films all over packing surface all the way down the tower ‡ Actually. thicker in others ± Liquid collects in rivulets and flows along localized paths ‡ Channeling ± much of packing surface is dry. films are thinner in some places. once distributed over top of packing.

Pressure Drop and Limiting Flow Rates ‡ Typical data for (P in a packed tower ‡ (P per unit of packing depth is from fluid friction ‡ Gy = u0Vy ± Gy = gas flow rate ± u0 = superficial gas velocity ± Vy = density of gas .

‡ If the packing is irrigated with a constant flow of liquid.8. because the liquid in the tower reduces the space available for gas flow. the relationship between pressure drop and gas flow rate initially follows a line parallel to that for dry packing. the line so obtained is straight and has a slope of about 1.‡ When the packing is dry. . ‡ The pressure drop is greater than that in the dry packing.

.Flooding Velocities for Intalox Saddles in Air-Water System ‡ The flooding velocity depends on the type and size of packing and the liquid mass velocity.

.s. where Gx and Gy are in lb/ft2.Generalized Correlations for Pressure Drop in Packed Columns ‡ A generalized and widely used correlation for estimating pressure drop in packed column is given in fig. µx is in Cp. and x and y are in lb/ft3.

in H2O/ft of packing.115Fp0.Empirical Equation for Limiting Pressure Drop ‡ (Pflood = 0.7 ‡ (Pflood = Pressure drop at flooding. ‡ Fp = packing factor. dimensionless .

‡ Because of the impossibility of measuring solute concentration at the gas liquid interface. the resulting rate of mass transfer can be expressed only as overall coefficient. .Mass transfer coefficients for Packed tower: ‡ When a packed tower is operated under usual manner the rate of solute transfer can be computed from measured values of the rate of gas and liquid flow.

Foga. etc. Fola. Kga.‡ Overall volumetric coefficients are denoted by: Kxa. ‡ The individual fluid mass transfer coefficients are Kx. Ky. Kya. To obtain individual coefficient ‡ the general approach has been to choose experimental condition such that the resistance to mass transfer in the gas phase is negligible in comparison with that in the liquid. Fg. . Fl.

Lt Lt is = Lo + Ls ‡ Where Ls is the static and Lo is the operating. each expressed as volume liquid / packed volume. or moving.Liquid holdup ‡ It is found that the total holdup made up of two parts. . holdup.

‡ The catalyst usually same active substance supported upon granular ceramic material.bed reactor. ‡ This type of arrangement are known as trickle. .Co current flow of gas and liquid ‡ Co current flow of gas and liquid (usually downward) through bed is used for catalytic chemical rxn between component of the fluid.

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