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Krasimir Kolarov Interval Research Corporation
HCC Seminar, UC Berkeley, 12/3/98.
What is this talk about?
Introduction to Haptics and Haptic Interfaces Commercial and University Haptics Force Feedback Devices 3D Haptics at Interval Research Corp.
³Haptic´ - an information processing perceptual system that uses inputs from the receptors embedded in the skin, as well as in muscles, tendons and joints (Loomis and Lederman, 1986) ³hap.tic (hap¶tik) adj. of or having to do with the sense of touch; tactile´ (Webster¶s New World Dictionary) ³haptic interfaces´ - devices that measure the motion of, and stimulate the sensory capabilities within, our hands (as used in human interface technology )
and manipulate objects in an environment.Unique Characteristics of Haptics Haptics relies on action to stimulate perception. Being able to touch. The haptic system can sense and act on the environment while vision and audition have purely sensory nature. 1995) . feel. in addition to seeing (and hearing) them. provides a sense of immersion in the environment that is otherwise not possible (Srinivasan.
physical construction) . slip.Other Topics Actuators (electrical. surface deformation. surface temperature) Control of Haptic Interfaces (distributed computation. smoothness. mechanical compliance. hydraulic. texture. pneumatic) Sensors Tactile Feedback Interfaces (sensors. quality) Physical Modeling (collision detection.
Computer Games .to perform tasks that require sensorimotor skills (surgery. Entertainment. Simulation for training humans . . data visualization and other engineering and scientific applications. Medicine.Applications Enhancement of GUI¶s (graphical user interfaces) enable users to feel where the buttons on their programs are. Interaction with computer-generated 3D data .users of CAD/CAM. Telerobotics. training for naval personnel).engaging touch interactions. costsensitive market.
JND (just noticeable distance) .stiffness > 25N/mm is needed for an object to be perceived as rigid .5o for finger joint. detection threshold on smooth glass plate .2 Q high single dot.06 Q high grating Kinesthetic Sensory System .distinguish vibrations up to 1 KHz.bandwidth 20-30 Hz. 0.human bandwidth for limb motions is between 1-10 Hz as a function of the mode of operation Active Touch with all three systems .2. 2o for wrist and elbow.8o for the shoulder Motor System . 0.Human Haptics System Tactile Sensory System .
. Alerting function .vibrations. Premise: The sense of touching simple shapes could be evoked by programming computers to control electromechanical master devices. We can build devices that give us a sense of feel when controlling remote actions with a high degree of dexterity. to display contact forces and positions (or their spatial and temporal distributions) to the user.Functions of Haptic Interfaces to measure the position and contact forces (and time derivatives) of the user¶s hand (or other body parts).
feel and manipulate the objects directly or with a tool .Categories of Haptics Interfaces 1. Contact involving self-equilibrating forces (like squeezing an object in a pinch grasp) Additional consideration . Contact involving unbalanced resultant forces (like pressing an object with a finger pad) 3. in which no physical contact is made with objects in the environment 2. Free motion.we can touch.
Currently Available Haptic Interfaces Ground-Based Devices ± joysticks/ hand controllers Body-Based Devices ± exoskeletal devices » flexible (gloves and suits worn by users) » rigid links (jointed linkages affixed to users) Tactile Displays ± shape changers » shape memory actuators » pneumatic actuators » microelectromechanical actuators ± vibrotactile ± electrotactile .
History of Haptic Interfaces .
enhance human-machine interaction) ± Sheridan (tactile and auditory substitution of force feedback for teleoperation) MIT Media Lab ± Margaret Minsky (tactile feedback from a graphics simulation. Fred Brooks (nanomanipulator force feedback.Haptics Research in Universities MIT AI Lab ± Salisbury (design of high performance mechanisms and sensors) MIT Human-Machine Systems Lab ± Srinivasan (understand human haptics. medical research) CMU ± Baraff. Vedula (force feedback in interactive dynamic simulation) . home haptics) ± Plesniak (haptics and holographic systems) Harvard University ± Rob Howe (tactile display of shape and vibrations) UNC ± Taylor.
. University of Colorado. Ruspini (haptics library. Rutgers University. University of Washington. Naval Postgraduate School.. haptics for the blind) UC Berkeley ± Canny (optimum stability of grasp.. Simon Fraser University.University Research (cont. dynamics) ± CCRMA. force control. dynamic simulations) Northwestern University ± Ed Colgate (dynamically effects like mechanical impedance) Japan ± Iwata (6 dof stewart platform joystick Haptic Master. McGill University. Cutkosky (force feedback grasping. University of Virginia.. mechanical design) University of New Mexico. Georgia Tech.) Stanford University ± ME Dept.. multi-finger manipulation) ± CS Dept. . O¶Modrian (grand piano simulation. Khatib.
Power Stick. Joysticks) Cybernet Systems Corp. Finland (virtual prototyping) Interval Research Corp. . ..EXOS Inc. Surgical Simulator. Steering Wheel.Industrial Research and Development SensAble Devices (PhanTom) Immersion Corp. Interactive Humans) VTT... Army.. High Techsplanations Inc. (Impulse Engines. Navy. MERL. GE Corporate R&D. (CyberImpact Joystick. SAFiRE) Boston Dynamics (Tangible Reality. Flight Yoke) Microsoft (formerly .
Immersion Corporation .
.Cybernet Systems Corp.
EXOS Inc. .
.SensAble Technologies Inc.
Video on Applications (SensAble) before that b&w slides from Web Page color slides from Hasser¶s report after that color slides from VTT .
Research Interests Develop a cooperative graphic and haptic interface that allows to manipulate and sculpture 3D objects more effectively .
Ability to perform tasks that are not possible with the current technology The combined graphical and haptic interface to 3D objects will allow us much richer and powerful interaction.Goals and Assumptions Provide a high level interface to haptic devices that: Complements existing interactive graphic systems Works robustly in multi-surface environments Provide common framework to allow stable and safe haptic control. .
Existing Graphic Systems Capable of displaying a large number of simple polygons at interactive rates (>20.000 polygons at 30Hz) Intersecting polygons & gaps common Topology seldom available (Polygon Soup) Gourand/Phong Shading & Texture .
Questions How can you support a powerful and general set of modeling 3D primitives. Allow the haptic server to operate with a great amount of autonomy from the host computer and simulate a wide range of virtual environments Explore issues like latency in manipulating large 3D data sets .
Allow the developer to specify constraints between the objects in the environment and control the motion of objects in the virtual world.Basis for Research Test distance/collision simulation. Model the contact forces caused by contact and collisions between the objects in the environment . calculation and dynamic Building a library to support arbitrary complex rigid objects.
The Haptic Roaches. . Haptic Exploration of rigid 3D objects.Stanford Students Projects The Virtual Xylophone.
roaches after that ± color slide on staircase ± slides from the HL talk » goals » bounding sphere covering » bounding sphere hierarchy » simulating smooth surfaces » results .Video on Roaches before that .color slides on xylophone.
. Those include pressure distribution. motion and constraint.Issues How to display (and compute) elemental sensations such as impact. temperature and high-frequency vibration. friction. softness. How to involve more complicated interactions (the Phantom concentrates on forces at the fingertip or tool tip).
Solutions Penalty Based Haptic Systems Bounding Sphere Hierarchy Virtual Proxy Model Surface Properties Force Shading/Texturing HL Library with Application Programmers Interface similar to GL .
Bounding Sphere Hierarchy .
The Virtual Proxy .
Proxy moves to locally minimize the distance to user¶s position Haptic device physically moves user to proxy¶s position . Constraint planes locally describe the range of potential proxy motion. User definable size of proxy.Virtual Proxy Description A representative object that is constrained by obstacles in the environment Proxy is reduced to a point (C-space).
Force Shading .
> 1000 Hz servo rate . syntax similar to GL graphic Client/Haptic Server Model Bounding Sphere Hierarchy .000 polygonal primitives on 200 MHz Pentium .Haptic System Implementation HL library.Stiffness 1800 Newtons/meter .O(log n) growth > 24.
edu/ Ruspini. Grigore Burdea. O. MIT September 1996. Kolarov. September 1997 . D. 1998 (published as MIT AI Lab Tech Reports).: http://haptic..mech. 1996. Annual Conference Series. 1997. K. and Khatib. Rutgers Univ.Sample References ³Force and Touch Feedback for Virtual Reality´. SIGGRAPH'97. ³The PHANToM User¶s Group Workshop Proceeding´.nwu. California. "The Haptic Display of Complex Graphical Environments".. John Wiley & Sons. Computer Graphics Proceedings. Los Angeles. Haptics Home Page at Northwestern Univ.