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Chapter 1:

Information
Systems in the
Small Enterprise

for the Small Enterprise

section I
Introduction
Systems Analysis and Design

information systems defined


small enterprise characteristics
Information needs of the small enterprise
the systems development life cycle
computer information system components
the role of the analyst
methodologies, tools, and techniques
the enhanced SDLC
portfolio project
Chapter Objectives

When you complete this chapter you will be able to:


• Distinguish the special characteristics and information needs of
the small enterprise
• Outline the five phases of the systems development life cycle
• Identify the six components of an information system
• Describe the nature of entrepreneurial systems analysis
• Describe the purpose of CASE tools

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Information Systems Defined

• An information system is a well-coordinated collection of


resources that gather and transform data into
information products and services that help the
enterprise perform its designed functions

• An information system hierarchy associates different


classifications of information systems with different
audiences

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Figure 1-1: Information System Hierarchy

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Information Systems Defined

Three significant trends influence the evolution of


information systems and provide opportunities for
the entrepreneurial systems analyst:

• The emergence of small enterprise computing


• The Internet as a dominating technology
• The maturation of application software

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Small Enterprise Characteristics

The following small enterprise


characteristics influence the analyst’s work:

• Owner participation
• Economic constraints
• Competitive pressures

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Information Needs of the Small Enterprise

The following are common information needs of


any enterprise:

• Production and inventory


• Personnel
• Financial reporting
• Marketing, sales, and service
• Customer relations

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TECHNOTE 1-1

Computing Terminology

Several software products are integral to the


analyst’s work:

•Off-the shelf application software


•Software suites
•Computer assisted systems engineering
(CASE)
•Object-oriented application software

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The Systems Development Life Cycle

The systems development life cycle


(SDLC) consists of five major phases:

• Analysis
• Design
• Development
• Implementation
• Maintenance

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Figure 1-5: The Circular SDLC

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Figure 1-6: The Recurring SDLC

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Information System Components

There are six major information system components:

• People
• Procedures
• Software
• Hardware
• Networks
• Data

Reference Figure 1-7: Information System Components

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TECHNOTE 1-2

Software Classifications

System Software
•Operating systems
•Firmware
•Utility
Application Software
•Horizontal
•Vertical
•Turnkey
Customizable Software
•Third-generation programming languages
•Fourth-generation programming language (4GL)
•Object-oriented programming language
•4GL products
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The Role of the Analyst

• An agent of change
• A problem-solving
strategist
• A group facilitator

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Figure 1-8: The Blurred Proportional SDLC

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ThinkingCritically
Software Ownership

Under what circumstances or conditions,


if any, do you feel it is appropriate to
install a client’s software on your
computer?

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Methodologies, Tools, and Techniques

• CASE Tools
• Visible Analyst
• Alternatives to CASE
technologies

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Figure 1-10: Visible Analyst

Enlarge
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The Enhanced SDLC

The enhanced SDLC embodies several important


concepts:

• The recurring nature of the SDLC


• The blending of several phases of the SDLC
• The influence of the user throughout the SDLC
• The addition of many powerful tools to assist the
analyst

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Figure 1-11: The Enhanced SDLC

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Portfolio projectPortfolio Project

Team Assignment 1: Your Fictional Consulting Firm

•Decide on a name for your systems analysis


consulting firm
•Develop a company logo
•Integrate the logo into a company letterhead
•Create an advertising flyer for your consulting
company
•Prepare a Portfolio Project Binder

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Chapter Summary (1/3)

• Small enterprise, PC-based computing should rely on


proven systems theory and techniques

• The small enterprise approach presents special


advantages for an introductory study of systems
analysis

• The systems development life cycle provides a


framework for creating a small enterprise information
system

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Chapter Summary (2/3)

• There are five phases of the SDLC:


• Analysis
• Design
• Development
• Implementation
• Maintenance

• There are six components of an information system


• People
• Procedures
• Software
• Hardware
• Networks
• Data

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Chapter Summary (3/3)

• A systems analyst is:


– An agent of change
– A problem solving strategist
– A group facilitator

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Figure 1-10: Enlargement

Return
Systems Analysis and Design
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