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p  - Dwayne D. Gremler


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‡Manufacturing ‡Wholesalers
  ‡Retailers
‡Transportation

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‡Federal government ‡Hospitals


‡State government ‡Schools
‡Local government ‡Nonprofit organizations
‡Foreign governments

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3onsumer Markets Business Markets

. . . are made up of . . . are made up of


customers. customers.

p  - Dwayne D. Gremler


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§ Require technical, § Require less technical
complex products products
§ Frequently require § Sometimes require
customization customization
§ Frequently require § Sometimes require
technical advice, technical advice,
delivery, and after- delivery, and after-
sale service sale service

p  - Dwayne D. Gremler


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p  - Dwayne D. Gremler


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§ Buyers are trained § No special training
§ Negotiate details of most § Accept standard terms for most
purchases purchases
§ Follow objective standards § Use personal judgment
§ Formal process involving § Informal process involving
specific employees household members
§ 3loser relationships between § Impersonal relationships between
marketers and buyers marketers and consumers
§ Often buy from multiple § Rarely buy from multiple sources
sources

p  - Dwayne D. Gremler


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Recognize Evaluate satisfaction
with product, service
the problem. and supplier.

Develop specifications Select product,


for products, services to service, and source
solve problem; send of supply; place
requisition to purchasing order.
department

Search for alternative Evaluate alternative


products, services, proposals based on
and sources of supply. specifications, price,
delivery, etc.

p  - Dwayne D. Gremler


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p  - Dwayne D. Gremler