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Y Different authors hold different views on the qualities
that are considered essential for effective leadership.
Y The main theories are as follow:
© The Trait Theory
© The Behavioral Theory
© The Situational Theory
© The Follower Theory
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Y eadership theory that identifies certain personal
qualities and traits which are essential to be a
successful leader.
Y According to this theory ,persons who are leaders are
psychologically better adjusted to display better
judgment and to engage themselves in social activities.
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Y aost of the trait theories believe that leadership traits
are inherited or in born and cannot be acquired by
Y Different researcher have given their views on
different type of qualities that are considered for
effective leadership.
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§enry Fayol divided these qualities into physical ,mental ,moral, educational,
technical and experience.

Acco. to Ordway Tead ,there are ten qualities

Physical Technical mastery

A sense of purpose and direction Decisive

Enthusiasm Intelligent

Friendliness and affection Teaching skills

Integrity fatih
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Y ¦arious studies prove that the trait theory cannot hold
good for all sets of circumstances
Y Not uniform
Y Donǯt consider influence of other factor
Y Fails to indicate comparative importance
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Y Acco. to this theory, leadership involves an
interpersonal relationship between a leader and
subordinates in which the behavior of the leader
towards the subordinates constitutes the most critical
element .
Y This theory identifies behavior that differentiates
effective leader from ineffective leader.
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A particular behavior of a leader may be effective at
one point of time while the same may be ineffective at
some other point of time and in other circumstances.
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Y This theory emphasis not on personal qualities or
traits of a leader ,but upon the situation in which he
Y A good leader is one who moulds himself according to
the needs of a given situation.

Y It fails to consider the fact that in the complex process
of leadership ,individual qualities and traits of the
leader also play an important role.
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Y The shortcoming of the trait theory , the behavioral
theory and the situational theory influenced certain
researcher to focus their followers.
Y The essence of leadership is followership and it is
willingness of people to follow that makes a person a

Y It consider only one sided view.
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Y Effective leadership depends on the traits of the leader
,behavior, situation and the type of followers
Y So the best thing will be to integrate the various
theories to study leadership pattern