Non-Verbal Communication

Hear no evil, see no evil, speak no evil

Non-Verbal Communication
‡ Sending and receiving messages without the use of words

Nonverbal Communication
Definition: ‡ Human action and behavior and the corresponding meaning that is attached to behavior. ‡ In short, everything but the words. ‡ It is far more than just gestures and eye contact. ‡ Actions Speak Louder Than Words

‡ Regulating ³ speaking louder or holding up a hand. ‡ Complement ³ what is being said and accompany the words.Linkage of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication ‡ Repeating ³ verbal signal followed by physical signal. . ‡ Accenting ³ strong action supporting words. ‡ Contradicting ³ say the opposite of the verbal message. ‡ Substituting ³ using action or symbols in lieu of words.

Why pay attention to nonverbal? ‡ Exchange of information thru nonlinguistic signs ‡ Assists in drawing accurate conclusions ‡ Increases sensitivity ‡ Nonverbal is stronger ‡ Nonverbal adds to or qualifies message ‡ More frequent: ± 7 % words ± 55% body (facial. posture) ± 38% voice (Mehrabian (1968) .

Strategic Usage of Nonverbal Signals ‡ ‡ Emblems ³ actually stand for something. Affect Display ³ more complex and obvious. Regulators ³ gestures that control what a speaker says. Illustrators ³ complement verbal message. but can·t. ‡ ‡ ‡ . Adapter ³ moving body parts that simulate what you would like to do.

Principles of Non-Verbal Communication ‡ Natural ‡ Cultural .

‡ Face including eye gives better picture of what you are.Natural Signs ‡ Eye is the best mirror of what goes on in the mind. ‡ Natural signs of mental state ² ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Lip movement Hand movement Leg movement Posture Sweating Trembling Lack of co-ordination Fumbling Increased use of fillers .

. The way you dress. Gestures that you show. curtsy talk. Tone in which you address others. Distance you keep from others. giving respect to others.Cultural Signs ‡ Cultural way of understanding your behavior ± ± ± ± ± Saluting.

± You do not successfully communicate. ‡ If there is contradiction: ± You say that you are happy and the natural signs indicate you are not.What you speak? ‡ There should be coherence among what you speak and what you non-verbally signal: ± naturally and culturally. .

Elements of Non-Verbal Communication ‡ Body language ‡ Eye contact ‡ Facial expressions ‡ Vocal cues ‡ Spatial use ‡ Time .

Body Language ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Appearance Posture Walk Gestures Touch .

Why Do We Wear Clothing To cover one·s body To keep warm To indicate wealth or status To indicate indifference to wealth and status ‡ To indicate occupation ‡ To show religious or cultural belief ‡ To express one·s individuality ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ .

‡ Why do companies and schools have rules regulating what people can wear ± Because people make snap judgments about others base on how they look .

Posture and Walk ‡ Standing straight can indicate confidence ‡ Dragging your feet can indicate that ± You are tired or ± Reluctant to go where you are going ‡ Walking briskly can indicate ± That you are excited or ± That you are important .

Gestures ‡ Movement of hands and arms used to help make a point .

Touching ‡ Perception influence by who touches. nature of touch and context ‡ Can convey: ± ± ± ± ± Affection Sexual Interest Dominance Caring Aggression ‡ Produces positive reactions when appropriate ‡ Handshake ± Firmness and duration predict favorable impressions .

Touch ‡ Friends touch each other to indicate closeness ‡ People might strike each other in anger ‡ People can indicate status by initiating touch ‡ Inappropriate or unwanted touch can be sexual harassment .

Eye Contact and Facial Expression ‡ Can indicate that ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± you You You You You You You You are paying attention understand what is being said take the speaker seriously are or consider the speaker trustworthy are bored are rude are flirting are surprised .

Eye Contact ‡ Important nonverbal cue ± High level gazing: ‡ liking or friendliness ± Staring (maintain gaze regardless): ‡ anger or hostility .

Vocal Cues ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Pitch Rate Volume Quality Articulation .

4 feet) Intimate space (upto 1 ½ feet) .Spatial Use ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Public space ² over 12 feet Social space (4 -12 feet) Personal space ( 1 ¼ .

Proxemics ‡ The use of space and how space influences relationships and communication .

Time ‡ People who spend a great amount of time together (by choice) are friends ‡ Someone who is late doesn·t care. ‡ Someone who is too early cares too much (is desperate) ‡ Someone who keeps you waiting is of higher status .

not bone crunching. ‡ Women smile more and are expected to smile ‡ Women maintain eye contact longer .Men and Women at Work ‡ Men take up more space ‡ Handshakes³firm.

Non Verbal Messages can ‡ Support verbal messages (clarify) ‡ Contradict verbal messages (mixed messages) ‡ Replace verbal messages (secrets) ‡ Regulate verbal messages (control) .

Nonverbal Communication: Recognizing Deception ‡ Most people lie every day ‡ Not very good detectors of lying ‡ Generally perceive others as truthful ‡ Generalize individuals truthfulness ‡ However. nonverbal cues can be helpful .

Recognizing Deception ‡ Micro expressions: ± Immediate ± Brief facial expressions ‡ Interchannel discrepancies: ± Differences among types of nonverbal cues ‡ Eye contact: ± Blink more ± Dilated pupils ± Unusually high or low level .

hands.Recognizing Deception ‡ Exaggerated facial expressions: ± Unusually strong nonverbal cues ‡ Move arms. and fingers less ‡ Linguistic style: ± ± ± ± ± Delay High pitch Restart sentences Speech errors Backtracking .

‡ DRESS ± Close and open coat ± Play with collar ± Picking at lint on clothing ‡ PROXEMICS ± Moving away ‡ PARALANGUAGE ± Slow response ± Long answers ± Vocal pitch .Nonverbal Leakage of Deception³Lying ‡ BASE LINE behavior before judging ‡ MOVEMENT ± Hand-to-face (cover mouth) ± Nose rub ± Lip biting ± Foot tapping ± Open gestures show comfort.

erect walk INTERPRETATION Confidence Standing with hands on Readiness.EXAMPLES OF BODY LANGUAGE TRAIT Brisk. shoulders hunched Open. legs apart Arms crossed on chest Walking with hands in pockets. Boredom foot kicking slightly Sitting. relaxed Defensiveness Dejection . aggression hips Sitting with legs crossed.

eyes downcast Rubbing hands INTERPRETATION Evaluation. frustration. doubt. slightly rubbing nose Rubbing the eye Hands clasped behind back Locked ankles Head resting in hand. lying Doubt. disbelief Anger. apprehension Apprehension Boredom Anticipation . thinking Rejection.EXAMPLES OF BODY LANGUAGE TRAIT Hand to cheek Touching.

eyes closed Tapping or drumming fingers Steepling fingers INTERPRETATION Confidence. innocence Negative evaluation Impatience Authoritative .EXAMPLES OF BODY LANGUAGE TRAIT Sitting with hands clasped behind head. legs crossed Open palm Pinching bridge of nose. superiority Sincerity. openness.

EXAMPLES OF BODY LANGUAGE TRAIT Patting / fondling hair INTERPRETATION Lack of self-confidence. nervousness Indecision . insecurity Tilted head Stroking chin Biting nails Pulling or tugging at ear Interest Trying to make a decision Insecurity.


4 ¶ ± Social Distance 4 .PROXEMICS Personal Space ‡ DISTANCE ± Intimate Distance 18µ ± Personal Distance 1 .8· ± Public Distance 12· ‡ STATUS ± Higher physical locations ± Privacy ± Propinquity³close to power .

± Barriers ± Arranging personal ´stuffµ ± Cubicles . ‡ Gender³Men tend to maintain larger personal space bubbles than women. ‡ Temporary reductions cause people to ´stake outµ territory.Spatial Differences Proxemics zones vary according to: ‡ Culture³awkwardness can result.

± Duration of message.Paralanguage ‡ Nonverbal aspects of vocal delivery: ± Pitch. ± Response or onset time. ± Tone. ‡ Nervous ³ ± high pitch ‡ Slow response ³ ± lying or thoughtful .

Kinesics Movement ³ most studied category of nonverbal communication. ± More accurate if observed over time. ± Differs between cultures. ± Cultural context (Symbols and action vary). ‡ . ± Gestures. ‡ Includes gestures as well as posture. ± Not a precise science.

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