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# Magic square

-In recreation mathematics, a magic square of order n is an arrangement of n2 numbers, usually distinct integers, in a square, such that the n numbers in all rows, all columns, and both diagonals sum to the same constant.

-A normal magic square contains the integers from 1 to n2. The term "magic square" is also sometimes used to refer to any of various types of word square.

History

-Magic squares were known to Chinese mathematicians, as early as 650 BC and Arab mathematicians, possibly as early as the 7th century, when the Arabs conquered northwestern parts of the Indian subcontinent and learned Indian mathematics and astronomy, including other aspects of combinatorial mathematics.

. simpler magic squares were known to several earlier Arab mathematicians.The first magic squares of order 5 and 6 appear in an encyclopedia from Baghdad circa 983 AD. .Some of these squares were later used in conjunction with magic letters as in (Shams Alma'arif) to assist Arab illusionists and magicians. the Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Purity (Rasa'il Ihkwan al-Safa). .

There are 9 small squares in a big square. .Example of Magic Square a) 3x3 magic square ( Lo Shu Square) 1. So there can only be 9 numbers fill inside the square.

Then fill the number of 1 in the central column of the first row .2. 1 .

Usually we know that central column of the center row is the midpoint of an arrangement of series numbers.8. So there are 1.6. 1 5 .3.3.2.5.7.9 and we could see that 5 is the midpoint of the series number arrangement. So we put 5 in the central column of the center row.4.

so all the sums in each row.4. and z(Even Number) be the corner of square. So x + x and z + z must be equal to 10. column and diagonal is equal to 15. Z X Z 1 5 X Z X Z . Let x (Odd Number) be the centre of each column and row.

This is because 1 + 5 + 9 = 15. then the central column of the last row is 9. Since the central column of the first row is 1. 1 5 9 .5.

Then the first column and the last column of the center row is only 3 and 7 only because 1 and 9 had fill in the central column in the first row and last row.6. 1 3 5 9 7 .

The number of 8 only can put in the first column in the first row because there are two statements can be explained: . 6. Then there are only 2. So now we choose a number to match the sequence. 4.7. Let us choose the number of 8. 8 do not yet fill in the square.

i) If 8 is put in the last column of the first row. then 8 + 7 + x ( the number in last column in last row). then the sums is more than 15. 1 3 5 9 8 7 x .

1 3 x 5 9 7 8 OR 1 3 8 5 9 7 x . sure 8 + 9 = 17.ii) If 8 is put in the side of 9. and it is more than the 15 already.

8 3 1 5 9 7 . the number of 8 is just only can put in the first column of the first row. So.

15 8 5 = 2 8 3 4 1 5 9 7 2 . each row and each diagonal is equal to 15 Next we can use 15 to substrate 8 and 3 . 1. 8 and 5 first. 8) Just now we know that the sum of each column. 15 8 3 = 4 2. So.

it becomes : 8 3 4 1 5 9 6 7 2 .9) So the last column in the first row is just only the number of 6 have not fill in yet. So when fill in 6 in the last column in the first row.

b) 4x4 magic square (Albrecht Dürer Square) 1. There are 16 small squares in a big square. So there are only 16 numbers ( 1 until 16) that can fill in the square. T .

Proof Shown : Order n Squares(n) Last No. the center four squares.5 (n²/2 + 0. As we know . each of the quadrants. Middle No.2. the sum of 34 can be found in the rows.* Sum(M)* n n² n²/2 + 0.5)n . diagonals. and the corner squares. columns.

* Sum(M)* 4 16 8. Middle No.Example of order of 4 Order n Squares(n) Last No.5 34 .

Then write the number of 1 until 16 in the following square by ascending order.3. 1 5 9 13 2 6 10 14 3 7 11 15 4 8 12 16 .

16 12 8 4 15 11 7 3 14 10 6 2 13 9 5 1 . After that we rewrite the number of 1 until 16 in descending order from the first column in the top row until the bottom row.4.

.5. A '0' indicates selecting from the square where the numbers are written in reverse order n2 to 1. These are done in matrix form 4×4. top-to-bottom). First generate a "truth" table. that means the position of the numbers are unchanged. that means the numbers of 1 is changed in position in opposite direction. where a '1' indicates selecting from the square where the numbers are written in order 1 to n2 (left-to-right.

1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 .

Lastly the result is : 1 12 8 13 15 6 10 3 14 7 11 2 4 9 5 16 .6.