£NGIN££RING IABORATORY V

BÐA 3?01
Bu¢k!Inu oI Stvuts
IÞT!OÐ!CTIOÞ
A sfruf Is n Iong sfrucfurnI mombor subjocfod fo
n comprossIvo Iond.
SIondor mombor Is n sfruf wIfh Iow cross socfIon
nron compnrod fo fho Iongfh.
ConornIIv fnII bv buckIIng boforo fho comprossIvo
vIoId sfrongfh Is ronchod.
Tho sfruf wIII romnIn sfrnIghf unfII fho ond Iond
ronchos n crIfIcnI vnIuo nnd buckIIng wIII bo
InIfInfod
IÞT!OÐ!CTIOÞ (COÞT`Ð)
CrIfIcnI Iond doponds upon fho sIondornoss rnfIo nnd fho
ond fIxIng condIfIons.
Tho sIondornoss rnfIo Is dofInod ns fho offocfIvo Iongfh (I) /
fho Ionsf rndIus of gvrnfIon (k) of fho socfIon.
Tho prIncIpnI ond fIxIng condIfIons nro IIsfod boIow:
O !Innod (hIngod) nf bofh onds
O IIxod (buIIf-In) nf bofh onds
O IIxod nf ono ond nnd froo nf fho ofhor
O IIxod nf ono ond nnd pInnod nf fho ofhor
OIJICTIVI
To sfudv fho buckIIng of sIondor coIumns nnd
roInfIonshIps bofwoon Iongfh, ond fIxIng
condIfIons nnd buckIIng Iond.
THIO!Y
Tho oxporImonf wns cnrrIod ouf fo soo If IuIor's
prodIcfIon couId bo roIIod upon In prncfIco.
AssumpfIon:
O unIform sfrnIghf mombors mndo from homogonoous
ongInoorIng mnforInIs usod wIfhIn fho oInsfIc opornfIng
rnngo.
O ond Iond Is nppIIod nIong fho confroId of fho onds.
O Tho sfruf Is InIfInIIv sfrnIghf
hon fho nppIIod Iond ronchos fho crIfIcnI Iond oInsfIc
buckIIng occurs. IuIor prodIcfIon for pIn-ond sfruf Is gIvon
bv:
horo
9
cr
= crIfIcnI sfross (Þ/m
2
)
A =cross socfIon nron (m
2
)
I =socond momonf of InorfIn (m
4
)
!
cr
=crIfIcnI Iond (Þ)
=oInsfIc moduIus (Þ/m
2
)
! =spocImon Iongfh (m)
£\I£RS TH£ORY
Tho sImpIo nnnIvsIs boIow Is
bnsod on fho pInnod-pInnod
nrrnngomonf. Tho ofhor
nrrnngomonfs nro dorIvod from
fhIs bv ropIncIng fho Iongfh ! bv
fho offocfIvo Iongfh b.
O Ior fho pInnod-pInnod cnso fho
offocfIvo Iongfh b = !.
O Ior fho IIxod -IIxod cnso fho
offocfIvo Iongfh b = !/2.
O Ior fho IIxod-Iroo cnso fho offocfIvo
Iongfh b = ! x 2.
O Ior fho IIxod-!Innod cnso fho
offocfIvo Iongfh b npprox. ! x 0,?.
IIAM IQ!ATIOÞ
Þofo: Tho dorIvnfIon boIow Is bnsod on n sfruf wIfh pInnod onds. A sImIInr
mofhod cnn bo usod fo nrrIvo nf fho IuIor Ionds for ofhor ond nrrnngomonfs
whIch wIII confIrm fho bnsIs for fho fncfors In nrrIvIng nf fho oquIvnIonf
Iongfh b.
M / I = o / v = I / !
W hon x = 0 v = 0 nnd fhoroforo A cos µ.0 + I sIn µ.0 = A = 0 fhoroforo A = 0
hon x = b , v = 0 nnd so I sIn µb = 0.
I cnnnof bo 0 bocnuso fhoro wouId bo no dofIocfIon nnd no buckIIng whIch Is confrnrv fo
oxporIonco.
Honco sIn µb = 0. fhoroforo µb = 0, n, 2n, 3 n ofc
A
!
!
A
!
A
T
!
S
!IS!!T
TnbIo l : !osuIf for oxporImonf l (pInnod
ond)
Sfruf
no.
!ongfh
(mm)
IuckIIng !ond (Þ) l/!´
(m´)
IX! THIO
3 48 5l.46 5.6?
4 40 4l.09 4.53
5 32 33.5? 3.69
TnbIo 2 : !osuIf for oxporImonf 2 (pInnod-
fIxod)
Sfruf
no.
!ongfh
(mm)
IuckIIng !ond (Þ) l/!´
(m´)
IX! THIO
3 l00 ll5.?9 6.25
4 86 9l.49 4.94
5 58 ?4.l 4
!IS!!T
TnbIo 3 : !osuIf for oxporImonf 3 (fIxod ond)
Sfruf
no.
!ongfh
(mm)
IuckIIng !ond (Þ) l/!´
(m´)
IX! THIO
3 2l3 25l.46 6.93
4 l?0 l96.38 5.4l
5 l43 l5?.6 4.34
OISI!VATIOÞ
OnIv 3 nIumInIum nIIov sfruf nro usod. (no.3,4 & 5)
Inch sfruf hnvo dIfforonf In Iongfh. (shorfosf=no.3;
Iongosf=no.5)
Sfruf nro nof InIfInIIv sfrnIghf.
Inch sfruf hnd boon nppIIod wIfh dIfforonf ond fIxod
condIfIon. (pInnod ond, pInnod-fIxod & fIxod ond)
Iv confroIIIng fho IondIng hnndwhooI , Iond sfnrf
frnnsmIf fo fho sfruf.
hon fho Iond ronch In corfnIn vnIuo, fho sfruf bogIn
fo buckIo. To roduco orror, fho sfruf nro fhon fIIckod
fo fho opposIfo dIrocfIon.
Ðnfn hnd boon fnkon whon fhoro`s no furfhor Incronso
In Iond on fho forco mofor.
OISI!VATIOÞ
Insod on fho dnfn coIIocfIvo, If cnn bo soon fhnf
fho sfruf fond fo sfnnd In hIghor Iond whon ;
fIxod ond condIfIon fIxod ond condIfIon
shorf In Iongfh shorf In Iongfh
ÐISC\SSION
I. Anu!ysIs on PInned-end
II. Anu!ysIs on µInned-IIxed
III. Anu!ysIs on IIxed-end
Iv. Anu!ysIs on uvuµL µuttevns
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6
B
u
¢
k
!
I
n
u

I
o
u
d
,

P

(
N
)
1/I (m )
Crnph IuckIIng !ond AgnInsf l/! Ior !Innod Ind
IxporImonfnI
Thoorv
!Inonr (IxporImonfnI)
!Inonr (Thoorv)
AÞA!YSIS IO! !IÞÞIÐ-IÞÐ
IxporImonfnI CrndIonf
mfho = 9.063 Þ.m
moxp = 8.0?? Þ.m
!orconfngo Irror
Irror = l0.8?°
50
60
?0
80
90
l00
ll0
l20
3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5
B
u
¢
k
!
I
n
u

I
o
u
d
,

P

(
N
)
1/I (m )
Crnph IuckIIng !ond AgnInsf l/! Ior !Innod-IIxod
IxporImonfnI
Thoorv
!Inonr (IxporImonfnI)
!Inonr (Thoorv)
AÞA!YSIS IO! !IÞÞIÐ-IIXIÐ
IxporImonfnI CrndIonf
mfho = l8.235 Þ.m
moxp = l8.065 Þ.m
!orconfngo Irror
Irror = 0.93°
l20
l40
l60
l80
200
220
240
260
280
3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 ? ?.5
B
u
¢
k
!
I
n
u

I
o
u
d
,

P

(
N
)
1/I (m )
Crnph IuckIIng !ond AgnInsf l/! Ior IIxod Ind
IxporImonfnI
Thoorv
!Inonr (IxporImonfnI)
!Inonr (Thoorv)
AÞA!YSIS IO! IIXIÐ IÞÐ
IxporImonfnI CrndIonf
mfho = 36.364 Þ.m
moxp = 2?.000 Þ.m
!orconfngo Irror
Irror = 25.?5°
AÞA!YSIS OÞ C!A!H !ATTI!ÞS
AII grnphs shows dIrocfIv proporfIonnI bofwoon
Iond (Þ) nnd dofIocfIon(l/!).
Thoro nro Iof of dIfforonf In dofIocfIon vnIuos
bofwoon fhoorofIcnI (IuIor IormuIn) nnd
oxporImonfnI.
HIghosf porconfngo orror ~ IIxod-Ind
!owosf porconfngo orror ~ !Innod-IIxod
Mnvbo duo fo sovornI orrors occurs durIng
conducfIng fho oxporImonf.
Tho IuIor IormuIn Is sfIII nccopfnbIo fo cnIcuInfo
fho dofIocfIon of sfruf.
I!!O!S
!nrnIInx orror whon fnkIng fho rondIng of
sfrufs.
~ mnv Iond fo dIfforonf vnIuo of momonf
InorfIn.
!ondIng of forco vnIuo Is nof consfnnf
(fIucfunfo).
~ foIornnco for fho vnIuo ¨zoro¨
InIfInIIv buckIo or bond.
~ duo fo sovornI usngo In provIous oxporImonfs.
MnxImum dofIocfIon n sfruf cnn ronch.
~ hnvo fo nssumo fho mnxImum dofIocfIon.
~ sfruf mnvbo cnn undorgo furfhor dofIocfIon.
CONCI\SION
l. Affor fInIsh up fhIs oxporImonf wo nIso undorsfnnd
nbouf fho buckIIng of sIondor coIumn nnd roInfIonshIp
bofwoon Iongfh ond fIxIng condIfIon nnd buckIIng Iond.
2. o cnn soo fhnf fho Iongfh nffocf fho buckIIng Iond
whoro ns fho Iongor fho sfruf
3. IosIdo fhnf fho sfruf for fIxod ond cnn supporf much
hIghor crIfIcnI Iond rnfhor fhnn sfruf for pInnod ond
nnd nIso pInnod fIxod.
4. Irom fhnf wo cnn snId fhnf fho ongInoorIng dosIgn for
fIxod ond for fho crIfIcnI Iond nnd mnv bo consIdorod ns
fo bo fho porfocf dosIgn fo supporf hIghor Iond.
!ICOMMIÞÐATIOÞ
l. Thoro nro somo rocommondnfIon nro nood fo
Improvo fho oxporImonf:
Tho rondIng musf bo fnkon cnrofuIIv for onch
sfrufs cross socfIon whoro wo cnn roduco Ifs
orror bv fnkIng sovornI rondIng
Chnngo fho sfruf, uso fho now ono fhoroforo
wo cnn gunrnnfoo fhnf fho sfruf InIfInI
condIfIon Is sfIII sfrnIghf.
Io cnrofuI durIng fho oxporImonf bocnuso fho
forco rondIng mofor Is foo sonsIfIvo ovon fo
fInv movomonf
PROC£Ð\R£S
PART 1: B\CKIING IOAÐ OI A
PINN£Ð £NÐ STR\T.
INV£STIGAT£ TH£ £II£CT OI TH£ I£NGTH
OI TH£ STR\T.
TO PR£ÐICT TH£ B\CIING STR\T, TH£
£\I£R B\CKIING IOAÐ IS \S£.
TH£ IOAÐ MAY P£AK ANÐ TH£N ÐROP AS IT
S£TTI£S IN TH£ NOTCH£S.
R£CORÐ TH£ IINAI IOAÐ IN TABI£ 1 \NУR
'B\CKIING IOAÐ'.
TH£ STR\T N\MB£R 2, 3, 4,5 IS R£P£AT BY
AÐJ\STING TH£ CROSSH£AÐ AS R£O\IR£Ð
TO IIT TH£ STR\T.
MOR£ CAR£ SHO\IÐ B£ TAK£N WITH TH£
SHORT£R STR\T, AS TH£ AR£ O\IT£ IOW.
TRY IOAÐING £ACH STR\T S£V£RAI TIM£S
A CONSIST£NT R£S\IT IS ACHI£V£Ð.
PART 2: TH£ £II£CT OI £NÐ
CONÐITION ON TH£ B\CKIING
STR\T.
IOIIOW TH£ SAM£ PROC£Ð\R£S IN PART 1,
B\T THIS TIM£ R£MOV£Ð TH£ BOTTOM
CH\CK ANÐ CIAMP TH£ SP£CIM£NT \SING
TH£ CAP H£AÐ SCR£W ANÐ PIAT£ TO MAK£
A PINN£Ð IIX£Ð £NÐ CONÐITION.
R£CORÐ TH£ R£S\IT IN TABI£ 2.
NOT£ THAT TH£ T£ST I£NGTH IS SHORT£R
THAN £XP£RIM£NT 1 Ð\£ TO TH£
AIIOWANC£ MAУ IOR CIAMPING TH£
SP£CIM£N.
PART 3: TH£ £II£CT OI IIX£Ð
PINN£Ð ON TH£ B\CKIING STR\T.
IIT TH£ TOP CH\CK WITH TH£ TWO CAP
H£AÐ SCR£W ANÐ CIAMP BOTH £NÐ OI
TH£ SP£CIM£N.
TAK£ CAR£ WH£N IOAÐING TH£
SHORT£R STR\T N£AR TO TH£
B\CKIING IOAÐ.

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